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Topics for Exam Two1. Types of neuronsa. Sensory i. Input, from sensory organs to the brain and spinal cord b. Motor i. Output, from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands c. Interneurons i. Carry information between other neurons only found in the brain and spinal cord 2. Parts of neurona. Cell bodyi. Contains the cells nucleus 1. Round, centrally located structure2. Contains DNAb. Dendrites i. Information collectorsii. Receive inputs from neighboring neuronsiii. Inputs may be in thousandsiv. If enough inputs the cell’s axon may generate an output c. Dendritic growth i. Mature neurons generally cant divideii. But new dendrites can growiii. provides room for more connections to other neurons iv. new connections are basis for learning d. Axoni. The cell’s output structure ii. One axon per cell, 2 distinct parts 1. Tubelike structure branches at the end that connect to dendrites of other cells e. Myelin sheath i. White fatty casing on axonii. Acts as an electrical insulator iii. Not present on all cells iv. When present increases the speed of neural signals down the axonv. The loss of myelin is a significant factor in the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). When myelin is lost, the high-speed transmission of information is slowed down or blocked completely, which could lead the person with the inability to walk, write, and speak. f. Neuron to neuroni. Axon branch out and end near dendrites of neighboring cells ii. Axon terminals are the tips of the axon’s branches iii. A gap separates the axon terminals from dendrites iv. Gap is the synapse g. Synapse i. Axon terminals contain small storage sacs called synaptic vesicles1. Vesicles contain neurotransmitter molecules 3. Parts of neuron4. Slow and fast messages in neurona. Thick and most throughly myelinated axon in the nervous system1/100 of a second for AP to run from CNS to muscle about one meter away b. thin axons without myelinated sheath conduct at 1-2 meters per second 5. Studying neurons in ratsa. Create brain lesions b. Stimulate specific areas of the brain by inducing action potentials or stimulate neurons chemically 6. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systema. Autonomic – involuntary functionb. Sympathetici. “fight or flight” responseii. release adrenaline and noradrenaline iii. increases heart rate and blood pressureiv. increases blood flow to skeletal musclesv. inhibits digestive functions 1. salvitory glands2. lungs3. heart4. stomach5. panaceas6. liver7. adrenal gland8. kidney c. Parasympathetic i. “rest and digest” systemii. calms body to conserve and maintain energyiii. lowers heartbeat, breathing rate, blood pressure7. Video from class8. Basic parts of brain and functioninga. Brain has 2 hemispheresi. Left and right sides are separate ii. Corpus callosum: major pathway between hemispheres iii. Some functions are lateralized1. Language on left2. Math, music on rightiv. Lateralization is never 100%v. Occipital lobe 1. Input from optic nerve 2. Contains primary visual cortex a. Most is on surface inside central fissure b. Outputs to parietal and temporal lobes vi. Temporal lobe1. Contains primary auditory cortex2. Inputs are auditory, visual patterns a. Speech recognitionb. Face recognition c. Word recognition d. Memory formation 3. Outputs to limbic system, basal ganglia, and brainstem vii. Parietal lobe1. Inputs from multiple senses 2. Contains primary somatosensory cortex 3. Borders visual and auditory cortex 4. Outputs to frontal lobea. Hand eye coordination b. Eye movements c. Attention viii. Frontal 1. Contains primary motor cortex. Its functions are related to motor action (behavior)2. No direct sensory input3. Important planning and sequencing areas 4. Prefrontal area for working memoryix. Cerebellum 1. Coordinated, rapid voluntary movements 2. Ex. Playing the piano, kicking, throwing, etc 3. Lesion to cerebelluma. Jerky, exaggerated movements b. Difficulty walkingc. Loss of balance x. Medulla 1. Breathing 2. Heart rate3. Digestion 4. Other vital reflexes a. Swallowing, coughing, vomiting, sneezing xi. Reticular formation1. Network of neurons in the brainstem (and thalamus) 2. Sleep and arousal 3. Attention xii. Thalamus 1. Relay station in brain2. Processes most information to and from higher brain centers xiii. Hypothalamus 1. Contains nuclei involved in a variety of behaviors a. Sexual behavior b. Hunger, thirstc. Sleepd. Water and salt balancee. Body temperature regulation f. Circadian rhythmsg. Role in hormone secretion 9. Basic parts of brain and damage to themi. 10. Basic parts of braina.11. Split-brain patientsa.12. Split-brain patients13. Basic parts of brain and functioning14. Hormones and neurotransmittersa. Hypothalamus releases hormones or releasing factors which in turn cause pituitary gland o release its hormones b. Types of neurotransmittersi. Acetylcholine1. Found in neuromuscular junction2. Involved in muscle movements ii. Serotonin1. Involved in sleep2. Involved in depression, anxiety a. SSRI’s works by keeping serotonin in the synapse longer, giving it more time to exert an effect iii. Norepinephrine1. Arousal 2. “fight or flight” response iv. Dopamine1. involved in movement, attention, and learning2. involved in depression3. dopamine imbalance also involved in schizophrenia 4. loss of dopamine – producing neurons is cause of parkinson’s diseasev. Endorphins1. Control pain and pleasure2. Released in response to pain3. Morphine and codein work on endorphin receptors4. Involved in healing effects of acupuncture 5. Runners high – feeling of pleasure after a long run is due to heavy endorphin release vi. GABA1. Main inhibitory neurotransmitter 2. Benzodiazepines and alcohol work on GABA receptor complexes vii. glutamate 15. Basic hormonesa. Chemical messengers secreted into bloodstreamb. Testosterone c. Estrogend. Cortisol e. Released by organs, including stomach, intestines, kidneys, and brain, and endocrine system 16. Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’sa. Parkinsons is the result of abnormalities in the basal ganglia i. Loss of dopamine producing neurons in the is cause of parkinsons1. Difficulty starting and stopping voluntary movements2. Tremors at rest3. Stooped posture4. Rigidity 5. Poor balance ii. Treatments 1. L dopa 2. Electrical stimulation of thalamus to stop tremors 3. Adrenal gland transplants b. Alzhemiers – deterioration of memory, reasoning, and language skillsi. Symptoms may be due to loss of ACh neurons 17. Drives and incentivesa.


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OSU PSYCH 1100H - Exam 2

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