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Sociology200: EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDELectures:  The social organization of horticultural society The zenith of inequality  The biophysical environment 1942 Germs The Social Organization of Horticultural Society  The first great revolution in human history: HORTICULTUREo First time in human history you had people whose lives and societies were dependent on growing their own food (plant cultivation) Changed nearly all main features of society  Created new forms of social organization  Was the beginning of a trend  Main consequences of plant cultivation o Increase in: Food production Size of society  Economic surplus  information and tools to satisfy basic human needs Trade and commerce Stability of the food supply improves, the size of food supply also improves Population size and density Death rate declines Complexity/inequality  Emergence of: o Multiple communitiesIn hunting and gathering it was a single community society, and now simple horticultural societies were divided among 6 or 7 different communitieso Permanent settlementsHunter gatherers were nomadico Urban centerso Slavery Not in hunting and gathering societies because they will only be able to produce the amount of food that’s necessary for them to survive15-20%of simple horticultural societies practice slavery…advanced was 85% - 90% o Social stratification Society where there is more than one level in the societyThere is essentially 2 classes of people (elite/mass)  unequaldistribution of power, prestige, and property wealthLower class tends to be powerless, called names, and very poorIn hunting and gathering societies there is just one layer, same prestige/power/propertyo Polity In hunting and gathering, what you have is a sociocracy  the rule of all (everyone is equally powerful and there is no formal political system…you always had the position of the shaman (priest/physician/magician) but they had no real powerWarfareo Boundary maintenance  don’t let people go against the boundary maintenance o Population pressureo Self-defenseo Metallurgy Main reason why warfare increases in advanced horticultural societiesFollowed invention of kilnMade war profitable alternative to production o Economic surplus Greed (throughout human history, there has been an insatiablelust for more and there are 2 ways of getting it (to produce it orto take someone elses) Main explanation for war throughout human history is to get more stuffVery few fishing societies and soon some advanced horticultural societies So not population size varies and how much stuff they have and how good their weapons are Consequences of Warfareo rise of polity o rise of military in horticultural territories all the men go o cult of warrior warfare is an everyday activity o walled urban centerso ethical and moral regressin hunting and gathering, there is a lot of equality between menand women, not a lot of warfarefishing horticultural and agrarian societies has an increase in inequality between men and women (appearance of slaveryand serfdom) Technological progress  moral regresso Hereditary inequality (the next chief is the son of the current one) o Warfareo Head huntingo Cannibalismo Human sacrificeo Homicide  happens almost accidentally in hunter gatherer societies  now it is a regular feature of societies o patriarchyo wife abuseo decline in sharing o ideology supports inequality o slavery o gender inequality  Why does complex social organization require leadership?o Facilitate decision-makingo Organize collective action o Effect military action o Resolve conflict, promote civil society o Manage economic surplus Why does leadership necessitate oligarchy (small group of ppl having control of a country) ?o Experience and prerogatives of leadership set leaders apart o Leaders have internal power o Apathetic membershipo Members feel beholden to leaderso Leadership becomes conservative and self interested The Zenith of Inequality: AGRARIAN SOCIETY  Main technological innovations (subsistence technology) o Plow Controlled weeds  Maintained fertility of soil  Digs down deeply enough in the soil to release the nutrients and people are able to farm that same piece of land forevero Harnessing animal power Fertilizer Permanent fields - Lead to increase food supply/surplus First animal was the wolf that was domesticated Eventually the horse, cow, pig, sheepo Smelting iron  Tools and weapons  Beginning to make tools and weapons of iron  Much more efficient and effective and results in increase in productivity and surplus (rapidly increasing number and usefulness of storage pits)  Tends to be associated with INCREASED WARFARE  Productivity and Surplus o Supplied military  Wars of conquest and empire building  Writing and numerical systemso Record business activity o Record taxes, rents, etc.o Independent inventions of writing  Sumerians, about 3,000 BCE Mexicans, about 600 BCEo Polymath  Someone who knows everything about everything (renaissance man) o Every other writing system piggy backed off two independent inventions of writingo Indian chief sequoia invented a writing system for his people based off of what Europeans brought to the new worldo Manage surplus of society  Population o Huge increase  hunter gatherer societies 40, fishing 90, horticultural 1500..etc.o tens and hundreds of thousands in agrarian o due to increase in birth rate and advantages of larger and more stable food supply o empire building o highest birth rate (increased over time)  agricultural economy religion  emergence of simple agrarian society is the universal monotheistic religion monotheistic (one true god)  be fruitful and multiply  religion pushes for an increase in birthrate  adult sons are your old age insurance lots of war, disease, famines, plagues, class exploitation, tends to keep the birth rate relatively high but this high birth rate canbe offset by the high death rate (25 to 30 yrs is the average life expectancy)  old age insurance  Elites maintain powero Monopolize force Restrict military technology People in power tend to be in power forever  Restrict the military to themselves Hunter gatherer societies do not have war Horticultural societies have infrequent wars where all adult men go  Agrarian has increased small

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