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JOUR175 Notes9-10-13Media Literacy:- critical thinker - don’t blindly follow someone else’s GPS- question things (do research, be doubtful.. etc.)Print Media: - we tend to talk about new technologies and “new platforms” with the language of the old- TV was first called “visual radio”- Language can suggest how we understand choices, solutions, and opportunities- If we call something a “newspaper” what are we referring to.. the ownership?About the quality of the news? The technology?Media literacy helps us understand what technology means.- First AMERICAN newspaper ever: “Publick Occurences, Both Foreign and Domestick” - Benjamin Harris was editor- Only came out once because some of the information (scandals) shut down by colonial gov.- Harris left fourth side blank b/c he wanted people to be able to write their own comments or news on before they passed the paper on to neighbors andfriends- “Publick Occurences” printed a story about the King of France having an affair- Harris did not have royal consent to publish- birth of freedom of the press- John Peter Zenger (NY Weekly Journal 1734)- Attack on Colonial Governor William Cosby- Zenger was concerned that the American judges were being kicked out b/c ofthe king of England- Zenger charged with “seditious libel” by Attorney general of NY (who was employed by king of England)- Zenger’s lawyers were disbarred from trying case- Zenger’s defense attorney Andrew Hamilton: “defend the cause of liberty.. the liberty both of exposing and opposing arbitrary power… by speaking and writing truth” – Jury to protect defendant against abuse of government power.- John Zenger stood up to authority and said WHAT MATTERS IS THE TRUTH- THE PRESS MUST BE ABLE TO PRINT THE TRUTH.- Case set basis for the Right to Freedom of Expression (1st amendment of constitution and article 19 of universal declaration of human rights)- Early American papers unusual in their challenges to authority- Newspapers historically and commonly are conservative forces- newspapers appear regularly and cannot hide from authority- as businesses they have a stake in a community’s stabilityThe Partisan Press:- early post- revolution US newspapers were vicious mouthpieces for political parties- - 1798 adams together with federalists who controlled congress passed alienand sedation act- increased residency requirement- authorized president to imprison or deport aliens- restricted speech- - publishes of 25 anti federalist papers arrested- Thomas Jefferson ended up being elected over Adams- Tiffany & co. advertises on top of NY times everyday on page 3 of NY Times- Shift to daily publication of newspapers in early 19th century- Allowed up to date info needed by merchants- Encourages the growth of advertising- But “mercantile papers” were expensive at 6 cents a copy—for wealthy readers only- What was the new invention that allowed Benj. Day in 1833 to sell “The Sun” for only a penny? – stem engines (printing press) - Technology changed who could afford newspapers- Technology changed news content- Technology changed nature of American politics (fostering of democracy)- Steam power technology changed how The Sun could reach readers- 1846: The creation of the Associated Press- (creation of

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UMD JOUR 175 - Media Literacy

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