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09 26 2013 5 1 Commerce and Conquest in the Indian Ocean 1400s European Maritime Exploration Two Motives o Economic motive Constantinople o Religious ambition Two Destinations o Asia o Africa Portuguese Early Exploration Prince Henry the Navigator 1294 1460 o School for navigators 1419 o Exploring down the west coast of Africa 1487 1488 Diaz expedition o Sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa 1497 Vasco da Gama o Rounded the Cape of Good Hope and reached India 1500s trading ports in Asia and Africa India Ocean Before the Portuguese 650 1000 Arab ships and traders o Islamic world southeast Asia and China 100 1500 Chinese merchants joined in o Zheng He 1405 1433 Cape of Good Hope Comparison Chinese and Portuguese maritime exploration o Zhu Di Yongle emperor Self regulating o Nobody monopolized o Without resort to force of arms Time Chinese were a century earlier Fleet Chinese had more bigger ships Route Cape of Good Hope Motive Economic religious political Outcome Why did China quit Indian Ocean after the Portuguese Europeans introduced armed trading and gradually dominated the Ocean trade by controlling a limited network of fortified harbors in Africa and Asia Secret of their success Portuguese commercial activities Africa Asia o Sugar slave gold o Chinese silk products and porcelain o Indian cotton products o Spice from the spice islands Beyond Indian Ocean Treaty of Tordesillas 1492 Christopher Columbu Disputes between Spain an dPortugal 1493 Pope Alexander VI issued a decree which established an imaginary line through the Atlantic 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas re established the line and moved it 1290 km to the west 1529 Treaty of Zaragoza extended the line to encircle the earth Portuguese and Spanish maritime empires in the 16th century 09 26 2013 Similar motives o Same trade route o Wanted to convert everyone to Christianity Differences o Portuguese factories o Spanish Settlement Spain was bigger and had a larger population Discussion Questions Imagine a Chinese emperor s meeting with a group of Portuguese who arrived in China in the sixteenth century seeking both trade and Christian converts What would be the Chinese emperor s response o He would probably reject the idea of further trade And prefer isolation because he probably would feel China was the strongest and richest nation at the time His empire subject did not need any commodities from overseas In Treaty of Tordesillas who gets the better deal Spain or Portugal Why the west o The Portuguese get the better deal because they get a little more land by moving the Line of Pope Alexander VI a little to o The new world is the better deal because its rich in minerals more land more resources its untouched The First Conquests Discovery 1492 Christopher Columbus o Reaches the Caribbean Islands First encounters o They were quite friendly o Thought they were na ve o Thought the Europeans were the Gods who have returned First conquests o Guns and germs A Brief History of Aztec 13th century different tribes city states 15th century Aztecs united numerous small independent states under a single monarch Constant wars and conquests of neighboring territories continued 1521 the Spanish conquest Cortes versus Montezuma Capital Tenochtitlan On an island in Lake Texcoco Founded in 1325 1428 capital of Aztec 1521 conquered by the Spanish The lake has gradually been drained modern day Mexico City rose A Brief History of Inca 13th century from a tribe to a small city state of Cuzco 15th century Inca expanded through conquest and peaceful assimilation and built an empire of 4 6 million Early 16th century succession struggle Atahualpa defeated his brother to succeed his father 1533 Spanish conquest Pizarro versus Atahualpa 16th Spain conquered Inca and Aztec Portuguese conquered Brazil 17 and 18th France England and Spain laid claim to much of North Further expansion America 09 26 2013

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GEORGIA SOUTHERN HIST 1112 - Lecture notes

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