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5.1 Commerce and Conquest in the Indian Ocean1400s: European Maritime ExplorationTwo MotivesEconomic motive (Constantinople)Religious ambitionTwo DestinationsAsiaAfricaPortuguese Early ExplorationPrince Henry the Navigator (1294-1460)School for navigators, 1419Exploring down the west coast of Africa1487-1488: Diaz expeditionSailed around the southernmost tip of Africa1497: Vasco da GamaRounded the Cape of Good Hope and reached India1500s: trading ports in Asia and AfricaIndia Ocean Before the Portuguese650-1000: Arab ships and tradersIslamic world --- southeast Asia and China100-1500: Chinese merchants joined inZheng He (1405-1433), Cape of Good HopeZhu Di (Yongle emperor)Self-regulatingNobody monopolizedWithout resort to force of armsComparison: Chinese and Portuguese maritime explorationTime: Chinese were a century earlierFleet: Chinese had more, bigger shipsRoute: Cape of Good HopeMotive: Economic, religious, politicalOutcome: Why did China quit?Indian Ocean after the PortugueseEuropeans introduced “armed trading” and gradually dominated the Ocean trade by controlling a limited network of fortified harbors in Africa and AsiaSecret of their successPortuguese commercial activitiesAfricaSugar, slave, goldAsiaChinese silk products and porcelainIndian cotton productsSpice from the spice islandsBeyond Indian Ocean: Treaty of Tordesillas1492, Christopher ColumbuDisputes between Spain an dPortugal1493: Pope Alexander VI issued a decree which established an imaginary line through the Atlantic.1494: Treaty of Tordesillas re-established the line and moved it 1290 km to the west1529: Treaty of Zaragoza extended the line to encircle the earthPortuguese and Spanish maritime empires in the 16th centurySimilar motivesSame trade routeWanted to convert everyone to ChristianityDifferencesPortuguese “factories”Spanish SettlementSpain was bigger and had a larger populationDiscussion Questions:Imagine a Chinese emperor’s meeting with a group of Portuguese who arrived in China in the sixteenth century seeking both trade and Christian converts. What would be the Chinese emperor’s response?He would probably reject the idea of further trade. And prefer isolation because he probably would feel China was the strongest and richest nation at the time. His empire, subject, did not need any commodities from overseas.In Treaty of Tordesillas, who gets the better deal—Spain or Portugal? Why?The Portuguese get the better deal because they get a little more land by moving the Line of Pope Alexander VI a little to the west.The new world is the better deal because its rich in minerals, more land, more resources, its untouched.The First ConquestsDiscovery: 1492, Christopher ColumbusReaches the Caribbean IslandsFirst encountersThey were quite friendlyThought they were naïveThought the Europeans were the Gods who have returnedFirst conquestsGuns and germsA Brief History of Aztec13th century, different tribes --- city-states15th century, Aztecs united numerous small independent states under a single monarchConstant wars and conquests of neighboring territories continued1521, the Spanish conquest (Cortes versus Montezuma)Capital: TenochtitlanOn an island in Lake TexcocoFounded in 13251428, capital of Aztec1521, conquered by the SpanishThe lake has gradually been drained; modern day Mexico City roseA Brief History of Inca13th century: from a tribe to a small city-state of Cuzco15th century, Inca expanded through conquest and peaceful assimilation, and built an empire of 4-6 millionEarly 16th century, succession struggle (Atahualpa defeated his brother to succeed his father)1533, Spanish conquest (Pizarro versus Atahualpa)Further expansion16th: Spain conquered Inca and Aztec, Portuguese conquered Brazil.17 and 18th: France, England and Spain laid claim to much of North America09/26/20135.1 Commerce and Conquest in the Indian Ocean1400s: European Maritime Exploration- Two Motiveso Economic motive (Constantinople)o Religious ambition- Two Destinationso Asia o AfricaPortuguese Early Exploration- Prince Henry the Navigator (1294-1460)o School for navigators, 1419o Exploring down the west coast of Africa- 1487-1488: Diaz expeditiono Sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa- 1497: Vasco da Gamao Rounded the Cape of Good Hope and reached India- 1500s: trading ports in Asia and AfricaIndia Ocean Before the Portuguese- 650-1000: Arab ships and traderso Islamic world --- southeast Asia and China- 100-1500: Chinese merchants joined in o Zheng He (1405-1433), Cape of Good Hopeo Zhu Di (Yongle emperor)- Self-regulatingo Nobody monopolizedo Without resort to force of armsComparison: Chinese and Portuguese maritime exploration- Time: Chinese were a century earlier- Fleet: Chinese had more, bigger ships- Route: Cape of Good Hope- Motive: Economic, religious, political- Outcome: Why did China quit?Indian Ocean after the Portuguese- Europeans introduced “armed trading” and gradually dominated theOcean trade by controlling a limited network of fortified harbors in Africa and Asia- Secret of their successPortuguese commercial activities- Africao Sugar, slave, gold- Asiao Chinese silk products and porcelaino Indian cotton productso Spice from the spice islandsBeyond Indian Ocean: Treaty of Tordesillas- 1492, Christopher Columbu- Disputes between Spain an dPortugal- 1493: Pope Alexander VI issued a decree which established an imaginary line through the Atlantic.- 1494: Treaty of Tordesillas re-established the line and moved it 1290 km to the west- 1529: Treaty of Zaragoza extended the line to encircle the earth09/26/2013Portuguese and Spanish maritime empires in the 16th century- Similar motiveso Same trade routeo Wanted to convert everyone to Christianity- Differenceso Portuguese “factories”o Spanish Settlement- Spain was bigger and had a larger population Discussion Questions:- Imagine a Chinese emperor’s meeting with a group of Portuguese who arrived in China in the sixteenth century seeking both trade and Christian converts. What would be the Chinese emperor’s response?o He would probably reject the idea of further trade. And prefer isolation because he probably would feel China was the strongest and richest nation at the time. His empire, subject, did not need any commodities from overseas.- In Treaty of Tordesillas, who gets the better deal—Spain or Portugal? Why?o The Portuguese get the better deal because they get a little more land by moving the Line of Pope Alexander VI a little to the west. o The


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GEORGIA SOUTHERN HIST 1112 - Lecture notes

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