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Octet RuleMolecules and compoundsIonic bondsCovalent bondsHydrogen bondsHydrogen bonding and waterWhy is water such a good solvent?Acids and basesWhat is the pH scale?What are carbs?Making and breaking down organic moleculesMaking and breaking down organic moleculesWhat are lipids?Fatty acidsSaturated fatty acidsUnsaturated fatty acidsTriglyceridesPhospholipidsSteroidsEnzymes (ASE)Amino acids are the subunits of proteinsLinking amino acids togetherProtein folding (pearl necklace)Shape determines functionRNADNAComparison of DNA and RNAATPWhat are some characteristics of the plasma membraneSelectively permeableHow do substances move across the plasma membraneWhat are diffusion and osmosisHow does tonicity change a cellEndocytosisExocytosisThe nucleusCytoplasmEndoplasmic recticulumGolgi ApparatusLysosomesMitochondriaCytoskeletonThe cell cycleChromosome structure in mitosisThe spindles in mitosisOver view of mitosis1 Mitosis Prophase2 Mitosis metaphase3 Mitosis anaphase4 Mitosis telophase and cytokinesisOverview of meiosisMeiosis ICrossing overChanges in chromosome numberMitosisMeiosisCri Du ChatNondisjuction of the sex chromosomesWhy is nondisjunction of the sex chromosomes more viable than nondisjunction of the autosomes?testing for chromosomal abnormalitiesModes of inheritanceAutosomal recessive disorderAutosomal dominant disorderOther types of inheritanceDemonstrating environmental influences on phenotypeMultiple allele inheritanceCodominanceIncomplete dominanceSex-linked inheritanceMost x linked disorders are recessiveWhat DNA doesDNA StructureRNA structure and functionDNARNAProteinsBiologyBiology – the study of life. What makes us alive? – atoms, molecules, dna, oxygenated, reproduction, movement, ability togrow, adapt, require outside energy source, organized function, What makes us human? - Way me move, awareness, complex body structure and brain, emotions, build of existing knowledge, complex thoughts and voicing opinions, way we communicate, dna, ability to tell the difference between right and wrong, ability to use our resources, thumbs. 4 Things that make us human!. Complex written and spoken language,2. Large brain3. Bipedal (stand on 2 legs)4. opposable thumb Organizations of humansChemistry- atoms and molecules (proteins, lipids, carbs, dna)Cellular- smallest unit of lifeTissue- groups of similar cell typesNervous, muscular, connective and epithelialOrgans- made up of all tissue types working together to carry out a specific function (stomach, heart, lungs)Organ systems- multiple organs working together to perform a specific function within the bodyOrganism- all organ system working together (endocrine)HomeostasisThe ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment in the bodyDespite constant internal external disruptions (temp, blood glucose)The nervous and endocrine systems are key in maintaining homeostasis (hormones)Changes from the normal tolerance limits results in illness or even deathFeedback loopsFeedback loops keep the body informed of any changes and also attempt to correct the situation to restore homeostasisFactors in a feedback loop:- Normal controlled condition- Receptor- Control center- EffectorsNormal- receptor-control center(brain)-effectors-to maintain homeostasis 2 mechanisms for maintaining homeostasisNegative feedback loop- Immediately reverses the situation to restore homeostasis Ex. Blood pressure Most common Immediate reversal Positive feedback loop- Must first intensify the situation to restore homeostasis - Ex. Child birth, blood clot, ovulationBP-Baroreceptor- hypothalamus-down HR-BP DownUterus^contractions-activates stretch rec in the cervix-pituitary-oxytocin^hormone*intensification (escalates)Chapter 2. ChemistryMatter anything that has weight and takes up spaceElements are basic building blocks of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical meansAtoms are the smallest units of an element that retain the elements physical and chemical properties. These bond together to form molecules4 elements make up 96% of the bodyH O N COther important mineralsK Na Fe Ca Cl ISubatomic particles of atomsNeutrons have a neutral chargeProtons are positively chargedNeutrons and protons make up the nucleusElectrons are electrically charged and orbit around the nucleus in the electron shells# of pro = # of eleOctet RuleAn atom can hold 2 electrons in its inner most shell, 8 in the second and 18 in the 3rdHowever, if an atom have 8 electrons in the 2nd or 3rd it is stableIf an atom has not satisfied this octet rule, it will react with other atoms to form molecules or compoundsMolecules and compoundsMoles are made of atoms that are bonded togetherCan be made of the same atom or different atomsWater co2 oCompounds are also made of atoms that are bonded together But it must be 2 or more different atomsWater co2Ionic bondsAtoms in this type of bond donate or receive electronsResults in a stable outer shell for both atomsForms charged particles (ions)Will dissociate in waterCovalent bondsAtoms in this type of bond share electronsResults in a stable outer shellStronger than ionic bonds will not dissociate in waterHydrogen bondsWeaker than ionic or covalent bondsCan form between hydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen and hydrogen and fluorineCan be found within molecules or in between molecules ( proteins, DNA)Not strong enough to form a molecule, but are very important for shaping proteins and DNAAlso responsible for some unique properties of waterWhat are the unique properties of water?Water is a polar moleculeHigh heat capacity (liquid water does not change temperature quickly)Molecules of water cling together (surface tension, cohesive)Water is a great solventLiquid at room temperatureFrozen water is less dense than liquid waterHydrogen bonding and waterHydrogen bonds form between a hydrogen atom in one molecule of water and an oxygen atom in another molecule of waterThis occurs because water is a polar moleculePolar covalent bonds electrons are shared unequallyElectrons are shared unequallyWhy is water such a good solvent?Water is attracted to other polar molecules and/or any substance with a charge – ionsMolecules that will mix with water are hydrophilic Molecules that do not mix with water are hydrophobicAcids and basesAcids are substances that dissociate and release hydrogen ions (h+)Bases are substances that take up hydrogen atoms or release hydroxide ions (OH-)Sodium hydroxideWhat is the pH scale?A measure of


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KSU BSCI 10001 - Study Guide

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