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First Exam Material- Olmeco Early Formative: 1500-900BC Colossal Head with Jaguar Paws- San Lorenzo- Deep set drilled features, dimples- jaguar paws on head represent a pelt ruler wore- Olmec trend of recycling altars into heads, belief that the soul resides in the head Wooden Figures- El Manati- Abstract features, individualistic features, probably carved on top of wooden staff The Prince- Seated on knees, wears headdress with deep set features Hero Twins- El Azuzul- Identical figures kneeling forward, grasping short staff, headdress alludes to rain godo Middle Formative: 800-600BC Basalt Tomb- La Venta- Basalt sarcophagi buried in court; laid out with pyramids astronomically Mosaic Mask- La Venta- Abstract mask buried underground; tassels on chin, cleft on head- Ritual of hidden architecture- buried at sunken north court  Altar 5- La Venta- Could be throne abandoned during transition to colossal head; 3 dimensional figure rises from niche with limp infant in lap- sign of legitimate descent or heir  The Wrestler- Antonio Plaza - Free standing sculpture, diagonal line of back, individualized  Offering 4 from Basalt Courtyard- La Venta- 6 celts and 15 jade and serpentine figures set out so one figure from base stone faces other figures from precious stones- Celts placed behind mock columns- could be recreation of real event; offering was buried then reburied  Kunz Axe- Oaxaca- In form of an axe head made of translucent jade- Were-jaguar howling infant motif with squinted eyes and open toothless mouth o Late Formative: 300BC-100AD- Zapoteko Monte Alban: 500-200BC Ball Court- Slanted walls used to bounce balls, audience sat on platform at end Temple of the Danzantes, Building L- Slabs carved with dancers, naked and mutilated with closed eyes- suggests they were prisoners of war being sacrificed (used to show Zapotek power) Tomb 104- Ceramic figure in niche above entryway- wears rain god headdress- Figures attend to frontal cult images and gesture to niche to direct offeringo Lambityeco: 600-700AD (Zapotek Classic) Tomb 6 with Lord 4 and Lady 10 Heads- Heads are portraits of individuals in tomb- unidealized and realistic with wrinkles- Names are inscribed and allusions to ball court in dress- Heads framed by double scapillary niches Stucco Mask of Cocijo Rain God- Mask is on entrance of elite residence; thin stucco represents rain god - Eyes framed with goggles and a thick plate in nose connected to lower part Palace Frieze with Stucco Figures- Friezes that represent leaders- male figure horizontal holding a femur, pointed beard- Female figure is in same position wit Zapotek ribbon hairdo o Atzompa  Zapotek Tomb Pyramid- 650-850AD- First painted motifs in funerary context- no humans, just ritual of the ballgame ending in sacrifice; standalone structure near Ballcourt  Tomb Mural Paintings from Ballcourt- Repeated black dots and I shape; could be in the shape of the ballcourt Funerary Face Vase- Painted ceramic, likely an offering and contained human remains  Zapotek Funerary Urns- 200BC-800AD- Found in tombs of high ranking lords, powerful figures on offering vessels; chest ornament represents ancestor’s day in 260-day calendar - Teotihuacano Pyramid of the Sun- 200ADo Pyramid of the Moon- 200ADo Temple of the Feathered Serpento Great Goddess Sculptureo Stone Masks- 200-750ADo Alabaster Figure- 200-750ADo Ceramic Censor- 400-600ADo Old God Effigy Vase- 200-750ADo Blackware Lid with Owl- 650-750ADo Ceramic Host Figures with Figurines- 750ADo Frescoed Tripod Vessels- 550-650ADo Tlalocan Mural Paintings of Great Goddess- 400-700AD- Classic Veracruzo El Tajin: <600AD Pyramid of the Niches Sacrificial Relief on South Ballcourt Decapitated Ballplayer o Reptile/Toad Yokeo Palma Bird Figureo Seated Figure or Ballplayero Fire God Seated Figureo Figure with Rattle- Les Remojadas Second Exam MaterialMayan- Preclassic: 800BC-250ADo Guatemala Izapa Stone and Altar: 300-100BC- Shows transition to Mayan style  Leiden Plaque: 320AD- Jade celt that refers to the rule of a king and a specific dateo El Mirador El Mirador Staircase: 300BC-150AD- Double register and four indents with decorative heads- framed by stucco masks of jaguar gods or gods of the underworldo Kaminaljuyu Stela II, Warrior in Bird Costume: 250 BC- Large headdress and costume with feathers- warrior or deity, supernatural figure descending from top of stone  El Baul and La Democracia Colossal Heads, Monte Alto: 300BC-300AD- Reminiscent of San Lorenzo heads; closed eyes, no helmet or iconography, face is puffy and swollen depicting someone deceased - Classic: 250-900ADo Tikal Temple of the Great Jaguar: 250-600- 9 levels make it a Mayan Icon because of the 9 levels of Mayan underworld- Has roof cone to enlarge the structure vertically- would have had stucco connecting levels Temple II: 300-900- Short, three levels with roof cone- burial place for ruler’s wife perhaps- Corbel vault supports roof comb, only suitable over narrow spaces Curl Nose from Teotihuacan: 425- Tikal attacked by Teotihuacan, throne in front of structure- was a real person with glyph of name on it (free standing relief sculpture) Stormy Sky: 445- Curl nose’s son- ruler in profile in elaborate ritual attire with accompanying hieroglyphs Jade Funerary Mask- Shows imperfects and drooping eyes- would have been worn by dead who resembled it  Jade Funerary Vessels- Cylindrical vases with human heads on top, found in Temple I; could be young maize god or ruler  Fire God Censor: 340- Lord of the underworld, shown as old and toothless, sitting on stool of femurs; severed head in hands and has head spout for incense burning  Maya Bird Bowl: 500- Tripod vessel- body is bowl, fish is in mouth; funerary theme relates to afterlife  Wooden Man of Tikal: 500- Kneeling posture wearing sarong and collar, could be a ruler o Quirigua Stela D- Frontal depicture of a ruler with detailed, multiple headdresses Zoomorph P, the Great Turtle- Religious/political- ruler on back seated with glyphs, could have been used as a throneo Copan Reconstruction of Rosalila: 571- Building with painted red exterior and sculpture reliefs of gods in headdresses on the outside- scroll motifs and swirls on registers Hieroglyph Staircase: 700s- Built by Ruler 13 as a commemoration- slight talud tablero Bacab from Temple II: 600-900- Shows imperfections and wrinkles with

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UMD ARTH 335 - Study Guide

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