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Social Influence6 Basic tendencies of human behavior generate positive responsereciprocity, consistency, social validation, liking, authority, scarcitysocial influence- influence of other people on our everyday thoughts, feelings, and behaviorconformity- change in beliefs, opinions, and behaviors as a result of our perceptions about what other people believe or domajority influence- conforming to the groupdescriptive norms- perceptions of what is commonly done in a given situationinjunctive norms- perceptions of what is commonly approved or disapproved within the culturepersonality, psychographics, and segmentationpersonality- stable response tendency across similar situationstrait theories- stable internal characterisitcs or traitsconsistent and measurable difference across individualsingle trait theories- consumer ethnocentricsmneed for cognitionneed for uniquenessmulti trait theoriesfive factor modelopenness to experienceconscientiousnessextraversionagreeablenessneuroticismpsychographics- attempt to develop quantitative measures of lifestyleattitudes, values, activities, demographics, media pattersn, usage ratestypes: general = vals and prizm, or specificVALS- 8 segments of American adultsPsycho characteristics that correlate with purchase patternsMotivations and resourcesPrimary motiv: Ideals, achievement and self expressionResources are ability to pursue primary motivationPsychological, physical, economicIncrease over life spand then declinePrizmGeo lifestyle analysisPeople with similar cultural backgrounds, means, and perspectives gravitate towards each other, live amongst each other, shared patterns consumer behavior66 segments based on social and life stage grouspsocial groups- urband, suburban, second city, townlife stage- young, family, maturesegmentation strategydeveloping segments- marketers use demo, psycho, and motivation, personality to develop consumer segmentshelps to identify target consumersfocus on consumer types,groups most worth pursuingstrengthen brand identity by making messages for different groupstailor segmentation to a strategic decisionactual purchasing behavior and likely behaviorredefine segments as market conditions changeGROUP AND SITUATIONAL INFLUENCESGroup- two or more individuals who share a set of norms, values or beliefs, that have certain implicitly or explicitly defined relationships to one another such that their behaviors are interdependentReference group- group whose presumed perspecties or values are being used by an individual as basis for his or her current behaviorClassification of groupsMembershipStrength of social tieType of contractAttractionConvergence- people imitate the behaviors of those around themBandwagon and herdingFact that other do it means it is good, better if expertDegree of reference group influenceStronger if: use of product is visible to group, less of a necessity item is, individuals are committed to group, activity is relevant to grop functioning, lack of confidence in purchase situationDivergence- avoiding what others do, 2 typesUniqueness- people see themselves as special, too many people doing same thing makes it unspecialIdentity signaling- people buy and do things because of function and what they SYMBOLIZE, people make inferences based on the brand/product choices of othersMore likely to see divergence in identity relevant domainsPeople diverge if value of brand is lostFor symbolic goods, value is communication, new adopters new meaningInformational influence- using the behaviors and opinions of reference group as potentially useful bits of informationNormative (utilitarian) influence- acting based on what reference group considers appropriate or notIdentification influence- acting after internalization or reference group’s values/normsInnovation- idea, practice or product perceived to be new by the relevant individual or groupContinuous- minor changes in behaviorDynamically continuous- moderate changeDiscontinuous- major changesDiffusion of innovations- manner in which innovations spread throughout a market- slow growth, then rapid, then slowsituational influence- factors relating to a particular time and place that are not based on personality or stimuli but still affect behaviorcan be very powerful, tend to be underestimatedphysical surroundings- ambience, atmosphere, weathersocial surroundings- alone vs. groupsituational characteristicstemporal persepctives- deal with effect of time,task definition- reason for consumption activityself use vs. gift givingantecedent states- moods and momentry conditionsNon-conscious influencesCulture- learned set of shared knowledge, beliefs, rituals, norms, and traditions that are shared among members of an organized societySub cultures- a segment of a lrger culture whose members share distinguishing values and patterns of behaviorReligion, ethnic,Iceberg model-evident culture=customs, language vs. deep cultureNorms- rules dictating what is right vs. wrong, socially enforcedLaws- rule of conduct or action prescribed or formally recognized as binding or enforced by a controlling authorityCulture can affect all aspects of consumer behaviorExpectations of product characteristicsPerception of product benefitsMaintain growth by moving into international marketIndividualistic culture- importance of personal goalschange memberships when demand too highpersonal enhoymentsusa, England, Canadacollectivistic culture- subordinate personal goals to those of a stable in groupself discipline and accept ones position in lifeVenezuela, Taiwan, turkey, Greece, japanCountry of origin effects- stereotypes about countries in which products were made impact people;s consumption choicesUsually product specificMatch up hypotheses- preference for goods that match their notion of country of originAssumes that consumers are knowledgable of brand originsAnimosity of products made in certain countriesSubcultures- native American, Hispanic, arab AmericanReligios subcultures- chrisitan, jewish , muslim, BuddhistKey takeaways- need to undersyand norms within culture to understand expectations and perceptionsConsumers often cannot articulate in advance their cultural assumptionsSome expectations are product-specificSome types of assumptions are deeply embedded cultural values (e.g., individualism vs. collectivism)Marketers often will need to test their ideas with the different cultures/sub-cultures to see whether these gain acceptance or need to be adaptedNon coiscoius influencesAwareness of


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UMD BMGT 451 - Social Influence

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