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ARTHI 6B: Early Modern European ArtAn economy has to be large enough to produce luxury objects such as art however – aka a person with excessive wealth can make art, or sponsor another to make artFunctional art that serve purposes - Subjects used to be primarily religious in art, became secular- Primary functional object is the altarpiece [religious art] Master of St. Giles, Mass of St. Giles, (1500)- Liturgical [function] – rituals within church - Priest – person in front of table; ordained clergy performing Mass- Mass – most important ritual in the church, preformed in front of altar- Altar – sacrificial table - Altarpiece – pictorial representation of religious subjects placed behind the altar- Corporal – white cloth that covers altar; corporal = body; body of Christ rests on the corporal during Mass- Host – small white disk; wheat wafer; priests raises it above his head; transubstantiation - Transubstantiation – changing substances; wafer turns into body of Christ Jean le Tavernier, Philip the Good at Mass, (1457-67)- It’s a sin to perform Mass if not feeling contrite/guilty of your sins- Man kneeling in blue box is Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy with a Book of Hours- Devotional [function] – emotional/love response [Mary, Jesus]; contrition/guilt response [sin] - Book of Hours – each day is divided into 6 hours and there is a prayer for each. Prayers are devoted into particular priests. Illustrated, called illuminations.- Diptych – “two panels”; medium for paintings; wood; in front of Philip the Good; picture of Maryand Jesus, to bring about emotional and contrition response so he can participate in Mass- Penitence – punishment; pilgrimage/certain prayers/etc. - Prie dieu – “praying to God”; table with padded knee rest and slanted table for BibleDieric Bouts, Justice of Otto III, 1462- Functional secular work, usually portraits- Otto III, lived way before Bouts- Empress accuses man in white of seducing her? - Emperor skips procedures and beheads him- In 2nd half of picture – wife of Otto, in red, holds a hot iron bar which doesn’t burn her which proves her husband is innocent; emperor burns wife at stake (shown in back) - Exemplum justiriae (example of the law)- Chiastic (forming X) relationship- Function: purpose of proper procedures in law- Docore – to teach; this image teaches people in the court room the nature of laws- Movore – to move the emotions; produce emotional response; the headless body is supposed toshock- Memoria – to remind people; remind people of what they already know; in this case, why you should not lie in court - Delectare – to delight; because of formality/colors/etc. one becomes entranced with image so a stronger emotional response can be drawn; in this case, flowers in 1st half, bright colors, how the coals are presentedLeonardo da Vinci, Fetus in Utero, c1510-13Albrecht Durer, GreatPiece of Turf, 1503- Function of both pieces is to learn about the physical world Leonardo da Vinci, Apocalypse, c1517-18Albrecht Durer, Dream Apocalypse, 1525- Both about lakes; Durer’s was in a dream - [Function] Early attempts to explore inner workings of the mindMatthias Grunewald, Crucifixion, Isenheim Altarpiece, c1510-15Gian Lorenzo Berninin, Ecstacy of St. Theresa, 1645-52- Focus on bodies- Grunewald: Horrific image to show one the pain Christ suffered for us- Berninin: St. Theresa had a dream that an angel plunged a flaming arrow into her heart which she felt love fromAlbrecht Durer, Self-Portrait, 1500Rogier van der Weyden, St. Luke Drawing the Virgin, c1435- Function: identity creation - Durer: Ubiquitous gaze = gaze that looks anywhere, everywhere; supposed to make you feel uncomfortable; trying to make an association between artistic creation and religious figures - Weyden: artist making a statement about his profession, a self-portrait not necessarily of himselfItalian, St. Francis Altarpiece, c1260- Altarpiece- St. Francis was a rich man who donated all his money to preach to others- He preached by accounting stories out of the Bible and explaining their significance- [Pictured] He loved preaching so much he would preach to anyone/thing; preaching to birds Arthi 6B: 1.2 Giotto’s Arena Chapel c. 1260- West wall has Last Judgment- East wall has God’s Mission- Churches in Europe were almost always built east-west with the west as the entrance and the east as the altar - Story of Joachim- Fresco – fresh plaster is applied to wall and artist paints directly on wet plaster- Fresco seco – dry fresco on surface of wall- Anunciation – God sends one of his archangelso Gabriel – messengerso Michael – military angelo Gabriel descends from heaven with a message to Mary: she will bear the son of God- Ave gratia plena – “hail Mary”- Ecce ancilla dei – “Behold the servant of God” = I will obey - God becomes human flesh the moment Mary is told of conception- Reincarnations – incarnation – on flesh- Halo represents a vision of a holy figureo Mandorla – halo with a cross on it; Jesus usually has this type of halo- Left means sinister; right means goodo Left side has hell scene: demons eating and pooping people o Warning to not end up hereo Below Christ is a cross, which represents Christ’s suffering and therefore has the power to judge everyoneo Right side has Heaven.o Enrico Scrovengi presents the Arena Chapel to virgin Mary (he donated the chapel since his father was a banker who charged interest, which is against the church) -Expulsion of Joachim from the Templeo C. 1310o Joachim is being pushed away from the temple by a priest and unto the ground-Joachim with the Shepherdso C. 1310o Joachim looks down, is humbledo 4 trees, one leaning into Joachim, one notes the distance between Joachim and the Shepherds, 1 representing the shepherds and one for the house -Annunciation to Annao C. 1310o An angel is telling Anna that she will give birth to Mary; very similar to Mary’s story about conceiving Jesuso Seaming servant outside and needlework proves Anna is a good housewife-Joachim’s Offering Accepted by Godo C. 1310 o Angel comes to tell Joachim to make an offering to Godo Burns a lamb, hand of God comes down to receive ito U-shaped picture, starting from the hills, going down to kneeling Joachim and ending with the standing angel -Joachim’s Dreamo C. 1310o Angel comes to sleeping Joachimo Joachim, sheep’s house, mountain = pyramid-like effect-Meeting at the Golden Gateo C.

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