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Midterm Study GuideNote: This will only include the definitions of the terms listed in Section 2 of the study guide provided by the professor. Section 1 is slide identification, and to be honest the slides and answers he provides are far better than I could type up (and I can’t pull the pictures from the pdf file anyway). Remember, you only need to link the artifacts with the correct culture, not specifically what the artifacts are.Venus figurines – Artifacts from Paleolithic times; small and portable; may represent a mother goddess, used as a charm for easy childbirth; alternatively, may have been a toy or porn; always had the ‘defining’ aspects of a woman (breasts, child-bearing hips, female genitals)Hohle Fels – Where the earliest Venus figurine was found; in GermanyPerspective/Modelling/Naturalism – an art style that tries to portray realism; used during Paleolithic timesShamanism – Represented by cave paintings in which animal heads are placed on human bodies; likely used in rituals in which a person (a shaman) would try to communicate to an animal spirit for various purposesBucrania – Found in Catalhoyuk; bull skulls that are covered in plaster and typically hung on the wallMolded Breasts – Found in Catalhoyuk; protrusions from the walls (believed to be breasts because of them typically ending in the shape of an areola); contains bones of small animals withinExcarnation – also known as defleshing; the burial practice in which the organs and flesh are removed from the remains, leaving only the bones (in terms of the lectures, likely refers to the burial practices in Jericho in which the head is removed from the body)Mesopotamia – Greek for ‘the land between the rivers’; the civilizations of Mesopotamia typically sat between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; first civilization to develop a form of writingCuneiform – First form of writing, developed by the MesopotamiansHierarchical scale – an art style that portrays more important figures as larger, and therefore draws the eye; typically seen in Mesopotamian and Egyptian culturesSargon I – The Akkadian ruler that brought all of Mesopotamia under his rule; is typically seen as a ‘rags to riches’ tale; the “King of the Four Quarters”Lost wax technique – A metal casting technique mastered in Akkad in which the object is first crafted out of wax, then encased in clay with a small opening at the top. Molten metal is then poured in, and after themetal has cooled down the clay is chipped away, leaving the final product.Lullubi – The foreign people that were defeated by Narum-Sin as depicted in the ‘Stele of Narum-Sin’Gutians – Foreign invaders that would topple the Akkadian empire and send Mesopotamia in a state of instabilityUr-Nammu – Ruler of Ur that brought the city-state back into Mesopotamian power; created the first codeof laws with the Code of Ur-NammuLamassu – a fantastical creature made up of parts from other animalsGilgamesh – a fictional hero that goes on adventures with his friend Enkidu; after Enkidu is killed by the gods, he embarks on a quest for immortality but ultimately fails and must deal with his own moralityHebrews – a.k.a. Israelites; wanderers or outsiders from Mesopotamia that eventually settled in modern day Israel; were taken as slaves by the Assyrians and resurgent Babylonians, but freed by the Persian EmpireNebuchadnezzar II – Greatest ruler under the resurgent Babylonia; set about reconstructing the city of Babylonia, which included the construction of a main road, the Ishtar Gate, a ziggurat, and the Hanging GardensFertile Crescent – an area in the Middle East that is very fertile; includes Mesopotamia, Israel, and EgyptMa’at – Ancient Egypt concept of balance; represented in art as a woman with a feather on her headRosetta Stone – An artifact found by Napoleon that eventually led to the translation of the Ancient Egyptian language; top portion contains hieroglyphics, middle Demotic script (common man’s Egyptian language), and the lower portion is in Ancient Greek.Mastaba – burial ground used in the Old Kingdom times of Ancient Egypt; had an above ground portion that people could go and give tribute to past pharaohs, and the bodies were buried underground in a labyrinth-like areaKa/Ba – Ka is the portion of the soul that represented if a person was living or dead; Ba is the portion of the soul that gave a person their unique characteristics (their personality).Imhotep – Architect of the first pyramid; first pyramid essentially looked like multiple mastabas stacked on top each otherAkhet – Means ‘horizon’ in hieroglyphicsMantuhotep II – The ruler that would defeat Lower Egypt and bring the country back under a solitary rule, starting the Middle Kingdom periodOsiris – God of the underworld; in the Middle Kingdom period, rulers would associate with Osiris rather than ReHyksos – A foreign people from West Asia that eventually took over the East Nile Delta area; brought technological and warfare advancements with

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TCC HUM 2210 - Midterm Study Guide

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