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9/9/13● Morales○ myth is a process rather than a product■ pg 2○ myth of Europa in the EU used to motivate ppl to vote for formation■ myths can be used for something beyond their direct meaning■ Europa was a woman raped by Zeus■ myth acts a symbol● Ovid gives the myth of Europa in a tongue in cheek method○ Zeus makes himself a bull to seduce a woman○ ovid makes use of puns, starts in the middle of stories● Ovid’s context○ rich roman man○ irreverent view of political system, similar to irreverence in stories■ makes fun of the Gods - makes Zeus look ridiculous○ translator adds pun to help with understand the original tone● Myths are multivocal○ different versions can convey different possible meanings○ SAME versions can have multiple meanings■ depends on how you read it● Ideology○ structure of thought underpinning a set of social norms & practices● Modern force of myths○ reinforce or subvert our modern ideologies■ related to MODERN social norms○ designed to be psychologically satisfying to US (or some subset thereof)○ eg Harry Potter■ designed to appeal to young ppl who feel like they need to overcome obstacles● Prometheus (Morales 32-38)○ communist or capitalist?○ brings fire and technology○ but also stole fire from the upper class (gods) to the proleteriat● Introduction to the Land of Greece○ Mount Olympus - Gods live on it or above it■ pretty mountain○ Greece has many mountains■ travel difficult between different regions■ no political union - many poleis■ Gods worshipped on mountaintops■ ppl took refuge at acropolis (top of city) during attack● hill in the middle of the city○ Delphi■ oracle○ Much sea travel■ contact maintain this way■ good marine■ much trading going on■ goes into myth● Jason & the Argonauts● Voyages of the Odysseus○ Major crops■ agrarian society■ prayings to gods for good conditions■ Olives & olive oil - gift of athena■ Grapes & wine - gift of Dionysius■ trade fro grain■ decorations on pots to show what’s inside■ Demeter & Persephone● wheat goddess● Chronological order of greek history○ bronze age○ dark age○ geometric age (Homer) due to geometric designs○ archaic○ classical○ hellenistic○ Roman age9/11/13● Artemis & Apollo○ twin children of Leto & Zeus○ born on Delos● Homeric hymns○ not all composed by Homer○ written over period of 300 years○ in ‘homeric’ dialect & meter○ most likely performed at religious festivals■ like one described in Hymn to Delian Apollo (Boer 158-9)■ Boer translation● gives a sense of wonder (& fear?) the gods inspired in their worshippers● The ‘official’ 12 Olympians○ all siblings or children of Zeus (father of gods and men)○ origins in next unit● For each Olympian learn:○ greek & roman names○ their spheres of influence○ major epithets & attributes■ epithet: something which describes a god● eg: Artemis of the golden arrow● apollo the Far-Shooter● Leto of the Beautiful hair■ Attribute● an object shown in visual art to identify a god or hero (visual cue)● eg. Apollo and lyre, quiver, lack of beard○ study the ‘god’ chart○ Anthropomorphic qualities of the Olympians■ qualities shared w/ humans■ have bodies● often taller or bigger■ physical needs & desires● food, sex, sleep■ can feel pain but not be killed■ form a family and a society■ not omniscient or omnipotent● polytheistic religions tend to limit gods’ powers■ jealousy of mortals■ Hesphestus has lame legs● Great privilege of gods - they will live forever○ p161 of Pythian Hymn● Many gods, just not as powerful as the 12 Olympians● The Paradoxical spheres of Artemis○ protects & hunts wild animals○ a virgin goddess of childbirth○ Logic in this?■ virgin = ‘untamed’, a goddess of the wilderness● taming is becoming subordinate to a man in marriage■ hunters want animals to reproduce■ “punishment” of women who become sexually active● death in childbirth was common○ she can kill or save■ animals, women in childbirth○ most gods have dual nature■ can help or hinder, give gifts or withhold them○ associated with wild animals○ Acteon■ saw her naked, turned to a stag and his hunting dogs killed him● Apollo & Artemis kill the 12-14 children of Niobe● Phoebus Apollo○ radiant, civilizing god○ Homeric hymns to Apollos■ Delian Hymn (from Delos)■ Pythian Hymns (where apollo’s priestesses told the future)● Apollo’s traits○ epithets■ Delphian, Pythian, Loxias (oblique or slanted - in regards to his prophecies)■ purification of blood guilt (killing)● get rid of blood feud○ Attributes■ tripod■ dolphins (aren’t these associated with Aphrodite?)9/16/13● Epithet○ word or phrase used to identify a god● attribute○ physical object used in art to represent the god● what should i be getting out of the readings?○ connecting the stories● Aphrodite, Eros, Hephaistos, & Ares○ Aphrodite is married to Hephaistos, Ares is her lover, Eros is her son● Aphrodite/Venus○ one of the most powerful gods■ sphere is sexual desire - physical desire rather than emotional love■ also vulnerable herself while in love○ fickle, changeable - make you fall out of love just as easily○ not confined by the rules of human morality■ many affairs○ only goddess who is married and has affairs● New Genres this week○ epic (Iliad & Odyssey)■ oldest works of greek lit to survive■ influenced later portrayals○ lyric poetry (sappho)■ often focuses on sexual love■ from lesbos - word ‘lesbian’ from this● Iliad○ Aphrodite in the Iliad■ ‘unwarlike’ goddess■ on Trojan side - set up Helen and Paris (Helen already married)○ Diomedes■ warrior on Greek side○ Aeneas■ son of Aphrodite; trojan○ Athena - the warlike goddess■ greek side■ tells Diomedes to attack Aphrodite○ After Aphrodite is wounded asks Ares to borrow chariot to go up to olympus○ Dione■ mother of Aphrodite■ comforts Aphrodite, who is wounded○ Zeus, father of Aphrodite (in this version)● Aphrodite in the Odyssey○ the unfaithful wife of Hesphasitos with Ares○ God of the forge catches them using nets in the bed● Sappho of Lesbos○ 7th Century BCE○ Aphrodite is powerful○ gives comfort to Sappho● Aphrodites Epithets○ Cyprian (Kypris) = “of Cyprus”○ Cythera = “of Cythera”○ Uranian -learn why later○

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UMD RELS 170 - Lecture notes

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