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STI’S & ADOLESCENTSIn one study of 838 girls between 14-19 years, 24% of the girl had an STIAmong girls who were sexually experiences, 37.7% had an STIEarly sexual initiation is highly related to eventually getting an STI10% before age 14steady drop as age of first intercourse is olderSome behaviors that contribute to early adolescents’ susceptibility to STI’sMore sex partnersHave sex more frequentlyInconsistent condom useIn one study, only 15% of sexually active adolescents in the 9th grade or lower that they used a condom the last time they had sexContracting an STI is related to adolescent risky behaviorAdolescents who get an STIMore likely to:Drink alcoholSmoke marijuanaSmoke cigarettesGenerally more recklessRisky sexual behavior that leads to an STI is part of an unconventional teenage lifestyleDeviantNorm-breakingMany risky behaviorsCapaldi (2002)Developmental Pathway to STIOppositional/ResistantPoor parental monitoring in adolescenceDeviant peer associationAntisocial behavior and substance useSexual risk behaviorSTIAdolescents at a very high risk for STIYouth in juvenile justice systemYouth living in areas with high prevalence of STI’sYouth living in areas with high rates of IV drug useYouth who exchange sex for drugsHomeless and runaway youthSTI’s: Do parents matter?Ford (2005)Looked at parent attitudes about adolescent sexual behavior and STI’sStudied the parent-adolescent relationship in early adolescenceExamined adolescents 6 year later for presence of an STIResults:6.2% of late adolescents had an STI at Time 2Perceptions of parental disapproval of sex was related to a lower probability of getting an STI for girls but not for boysWhy only girls?More conventionalMore obedientGreater desire to please parentsBoys in general are less connected to parentsBoys have more freedomParent disapproval of sex:Adolescents are less likely to be sexually activeFewer partnersLower frequencyConsistent condom useRisky sex among high school students50% of high school students have had sexual intercourse42% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse8% had intercourse before age 1316% had 4 or more lifetime sexual partners25% had used alcohol or drugs at last intercourseTrends in high school student sexual behavior and condom use (1991-2011)Ever had intercourse?55%  48% (decrease)Used a condom at last intercourse?45%  60% (increase)Does drinking alcohol increase the risk of acquiring an STI among adolescents?It appears that STIs are associated with:Heavy drinking (20+ drinks per week for at least a year)Binge drinking (5+ drinks in one sitting each week for at least a year)Why?Risky sexual behaviorSelection of high-risk partnersDecrease immunitySome third variableRisk-takingSome common STIsBacterial (curable)ChlamydiaGonorrheaSyphilisViral (incurable)HIV/AIDSHerpesHuman Papillomavirus (HPV)Three STIs important to adolescentsChlamydia, one of the most commonHerpes, the most irritatingHIV/AIDS, most deadlyChlamydiaOne of the most common STIs in the U.S.Complications:In women:Pelvic inflammatory diseaseInfection of uterus and fallopian tubesInfertilityIn men:Complications are rareWhy are females more vulnerable?Young females have an immature cervix that is susceptible to infectionChlamydia id asymptomatic initially, so infection spreadsMale and Female Chlamydia cases (2010)Males most vulnerable:15-24 (20-24)Females most vulnerable:15-24Huge number moreChlamydia rates by sex (1991-2011)Tread increase in number of casesWomen more than double menHerpesHSV-1 (Oral herpes)Typically transmitted during childhoodHSV-2 (Genital herpes)Recurrent and painful genital and anal soresPossible infection of newbornHerpes infectionsMost HSV-1 infections occur in childhoodMost HSV-2 infections occur in adolescence and early adulthoodPercent of teenager with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (2006)MalesHSV-1  50%HSV-2  12%FemalesHSV-1  50%HSV-2  15%Visits to physicians’ offices for genital herpes (1966-2010)Steady increase in visitsRoberts (2004)Why?One reason for the increase of genital herpesDetermined the source of genital herpes in a sample of college studentsResults:Between 1993-2001 the present of HSV-2 due to HSV-1 increase from about 30% to about 80%Oral sex has become an important mode of new genital herpes infectionsTEEN ABORTIONAre adolescents who have an abortion at risk for medical complications?All types of abortion complications (fever, infections, transfusion, and surgery) are less likely for teens than for adultsMaternal mortality rates for abortion1.3 per 100,000 teenagers (.00013%)2.9 per 100,000 adults (.00029%)One exceptionYoung teens have a higher rate of injury to the cervix as a result of an abortion than women over the age of 185.5 injuries per 1,000 teens 17 or younger (.55%)1.5 injuries per 1,000 women 18 and older (.15%)Conclusions:Abortions to teenager are generally safer than abortions to adultsAbortion complications are more highly related to gestational age of the fetus than to the age of the mother, except when the mother is very youngAre adolescents who have an abortion at risk for psychological difficulties?Quinton (2001)Compared the post abortion adjustment of minors and adultsAdjustment was assessed at 1 months and 2 years post-abortionResults:At 1 month:Minors were less satisfied with their decision to have an abortion than were adultsMinors perceived more personal harm than benefit from having an abortionAdults perceived more personal benefit than harm from having an abortionAt 2 years:Minors and adults had similar, generally positive reactions to their decision to abortTeenage abortion and parent social supportTeens who decided to have an abortion and received support from their parents had better post-abortion adjustment than teens who did not receive parent supportConclusions:There is some evidence that teenagers, especially the very young, have an “impaired ability” to make good decisions about difficult issues such as abortionThere is no evidence that teenager are at high risk to surer physical or psychological harm from an abortionTEEN PREGNANCYInfant mortality rates by mothers ageYounger the mother is higher risk of a low birth weightYounger the mother is a higher risk of infant mortalityWhy?For very young teensImmature reproductive systemFor older teensInadequate prenatal careRisks to children born to teen mothersPoorer cognitive developmentLower educational attainmentHigher risk for abuse,

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