Messiah PSYC 204 - Perceptual Processes I: Visual and Auditory Processing
School name Messiah College
Pages 20

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Review from First Class:(1) Three Eras in the History of PsychologyIntrospection and StructuralismBehaviorism (~1900-1950s)Cognitive RevolutionNoam Chomsky & Language(2) Major Criticism of Cognitive Psychology – poor ecological validity(3) Cognitive Science vs. Cognitive NeuroscienceCS focuses on many aspects of the field of knowledge and knowingCNS focuses on the workings of the brain as it relates to cognition(4) Foer claims that we are fairly good at remembering – Theme 2: Cognitive processes are remarkably efficient and accuratePerceptual Processes I: Visual and Auditory ProcessingPattern RecognitionIllustration: Old world city street, seaside to left, buildings lining the road, people and carts in the street, possibly leading to a larger city areaThe moment the image flashed before us, information processing was already taking place and connections were being made, even though the picture was only present for a half-secondTheories of Visual Object/ Pattern RecognitionTemplate-MatchingIn the developmental process, we notice patterns in the world; those that we experience frequently we begin to associate with all other objects of similar formClarification: Templates are “exact matches” of things we experience in the real world, whereas schemas are more categoricalWe fashion a 1:1 correspondence in our memory of everything we experience in the real worldExample: Bar-codes and QR-codesThis is related to bottom-up processing – we are looking for an exact representation or matchPrototype-MatchingImprovement upon Template ModelSuggests that we know in general the essential elements of the things we encounter in reality, rather than a specific and exact image of what we encounterExample: Rather than having an exact representation of the letter “A” in our mind, we recognize the essence of the letterThis is related to top-down processing – we are taking the general idea—the essence—of the things we encounterFeature Analysis/ Distinctive Feature ApproachBorn of reductionismSuggests that we break down visual stimuli into component features; each stimulus that we encounter is comprised of a specific set of featuresExample: Instead of capturing the exact form or essence of the letter “A,” we look at the individual features of the letter “A”—the horizontal and diagonal lines arranged in a specific wayOur visual cortex has “feature detectors” that are specific to specific orientations and positions of stimuliSimilar system: Pandemonium ModelHubel & Wisel were the first to discover feature detection cells in cats (specifically attuned to fire for different contours)This is related to bottom-up processing – we are looking for specific featuresRecognition-by-ComponentsExpansion of Feature Analysis to include 3-D objectsThese 3-D elements are called geonsViewer-Centered Approach = we recognize that a particular object remains the same even if the stimulus on the retina changes dramatically (as in a rotation of the object or some other manipulation)This is related to bottom-up processing – we are looking for specific geonsPrinciples of Pattern RecognitionTop-Down/ Bottom-Up ProcessingWord Superiority Effect = when a letter is embedded in a meaningful word, we are able to locate the letter than if it was embedded in a list of random lettersContext makes a difference!Overactive Top-Down Processing = by priming the system to be attuned to a specific stimulus, we sometimes make errorsExample: Top, Hop, Cop, Shop…What do you do when you see a green light? “Stop…I mean GO!”Speech PerceptionSpeech SoundsPhoneme – smallest unit of speech that we use to communicateMore phonemes than letters in the English languageBechtold: 35-40 in the English languageMatlin: 40-45 in the English language50-60 phonemes make up all the languages of the world12 “distinctive features” make up all phonemesPhoneme Characteristics in Speech Production:Vary in pitch and toneLanguage is not always produced in a precise fashionCoarticulation/ Parallel Transmission = we perceive silence between words where there is none; it is an auditory illusionMorpheme – smallest unit of speech that carries meaningExample: trees3 phonemes: tr/ee/s2 morphemes: tree/stree – object in natures – pluralSpeech RecognitionParsing = breaking down a continuous auditory feed into individual wordsPhonemic Restoration = filling in missing phonemes based on contextMcGurk Effect/ Multimodal Perception = the ability to understand speech usually more than simply auditory processing, such as visually, like watching the news with the sound off and still knowing what is being saidPerceptual Processes II: AttentionTypes of AttentionDivided AttentionSelective AttentionTheories of AttentionParallel Distributing Processing (PDP) ModelThere is interference in pathway activation that causes a delayMultiple networks are activated simultaneouslyBottleneck/Filter TheoriesWe get a vast amount of sensory stimuliBefore information is registered cognitively, there is a “filter” or “bottleneck” that only allows some information in to be cognitively processedStronger stimuli block other stimuli, i.e. whatever reaches you first or is more dominant gets throughInformation reaches short-term memoryTreisman’s Feature Integration Theory (2-stage model)Pre-Attentive Process (Distributed attention)Parallel processing – everything taken in all at onceThe article of interest just seems to “leap” outFocused Attention (Selective Attention)Serial processing – scanning one object after anotherYou go from item to item, scanning for the particular item of interestThere is a competition for selective attention and where we direct our attentionShiffren & Schnieder’s Automatic vs. Controlled ProcessingAutomatic ProcessingParallel – many things are done simultaneouslyEffortless (Not easy) – doesn’t require intense thoughtPre-attentive – you’re still attending to the whole environment, not any particular thingNo need for working memory (short-term memory)Controlled ProcessingSerial – one thing done at a timeEffortful – requires intense cognitive loadFocused – concentration of mental activity on one thingRelies on working memory (short-term memory)Thought typically begins at the controlled level – once this process becomes automatic, cognitive load is released for some other taskCognitive load doesn’t change – you just become more efficientAutomatic processes are hard to inhibit; processes that are

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