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Comm 3160 Review Session Exam #2 2/21/14To make strong casual claims, you must establish temporal precedence, non-spuriousness, and this:CovariationInadvertently priming respondents to think about a particular issue before answering subsequent survey questions is an issue known as: Order effectsWhich type of experimental design assigns subjects to every treatmentcondition rather than different conditions? Within subjects (use with small sample)This is the quantitate study of messages or message content central tothe communication discipline:Content AnalysisWhich of the following is an appropriate application of content analysis?Describing what types of messages exist, examining content trends over timeRuling out the possibility of reverse causation (YX) is known as establishing:Temporal PrecedenceWhich of the following techniques could help to reduce social desirability bias effects in survey research?Ensuring anonymous data (people are more willing to disclose less than attractive things about themselves and their behavior if they know its anonymous) One way to reduce the potential for order/carry-over effects in within-subjects experimental designs is to:Randomly order treatments Purposive sampling in content analytic work is popular because it creates a: More manageable population size (starts with large population sample of everything included and narrow it down with purposivesampling to make it more manageable)Analysis of survey data shows that TV viewing is positively associated with obesity. What would help strengthen causal claims about this relationship?A follow-up experimentA follow-up surveyControlling for 3rd variables What’s the problem with this survey question? Please tell me whether you would vote for or against a candidate who supports reducing federal spending on education and welfare? Double-barreledWhich of the following measures used in experimental research captures point of gaze or attention to content areas?Eye tracking This is the extent to which we can accurately state that the independent variable is the only case of the observed effect within the study:Internal Validity Rather than assuming all of her survey respondents are smokers, Sarah first asks “have you ever smoke?” then, she asks those who responded yes, “do you currently smoke?” this process is called:Filtering The process in which each participant has an equal chance of being in the treatment or control group is called:Random assignment The Kaiser family foundation study regarding sex on TV, coders assessed frequency of sexual talk and behaviors in both scenes and programs, the ______ in the study: Units of AnalysisLaboratory experiments are known for having particularly low levels of ____ compared to surveys:External Validity (the ability to generalize to the outside world)Researchers may avoid open-ended questions on surveys because:They are difficult to code Over a 20 year period a researcher contacts a different sample from hesame population every 5 years to examine how beliefs about a cancer and smoking change over time, this study is a:Panel Survey (a trend survey looks at different populations)You hypothesize that exposure to the state of the union address increases support of the president, which of the following methodologies could you use to appropriately test this hypothesis? Experiment and Longitudinal Survey This communication research method is commonly used to determine whether one phenomena causes another:ExperimentThis is surface-level, visible content that can be directly observed during coding:Manifest content To assess inter-coder reliability in content analysis, which of the following is NOT an appropriate statistic?Percentage agreementLab experiments have greater ____ than field experiments:Internal Validity Two students watching the walking dead and counting murders don’t agree on the level of violence they see-an example of:Inter-coder reliability (“In their responses”) Unlike longitudinal surveys cross sectional surveys are not able to establish____:Temporal precedenceWhich types of research methods are threatened most by attrition, or people dropping out of the study?Longitudinal surveysField Experiments In the beer goggles study, if participants shared their alcoholic line drinks with those in the control group, we would call this: Diffusion of treatment Which of the following is an advantage of phone surveys?Faster than mail surveys (also cheaper, less social desirability bias, pretty easy to randomly sample or random digit dial) Joe’s experiment exposed OSU students to different types of on-screen sexual behavior and then measured arousal using a hart-rate monitor, the independent variable in this study is: On-screen sexual behavior (DV-heart rate)Likert-type scales and semantic differentials are examples of this level of measurement:Interval (semantic differential scale is comparing opposite adjectives to describe something friendly-not friendly)Which of the following design elements help minimize alternative explanations (increase internal validity) in experiments? Control groupsRandom assignmentPhysiological


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OSU COMM 3160 - Exam #2

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