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Chapter 4 & 5 NotesChapter 4Carbohydrate- organic compound made of varying numbers of monosaccharaides Simple carbohydrates- organic compound (one or more sugar molecules), abundant in a wide variety of foodsMonosaccharaides- carbon(6), hydrogen(12) and oxygen(6) (1:2:1) composed of glucose, fructose, galactose (1 sugar unit), hexose sugars - Glucose- produced by photosynthesis, provide cells with source of energy, preferred or sole energy source, storage as glycogeno Most abundant in the body, produced when chlorophyll-containing plants combine with carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight o Plants can use glucose to form large complex carbohydrates o When glucose is consumed by animals, the body breaks down these large carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used by cells as a source of energy- Galactose- roles in the body, a 6-carbon monosaccharide found mainly bonded with glucose to form the milk sugar lactose- Fructose- 6-carbon monosaccharaides found in fruits and vegetables (aka levulose)- High-fructose corn syrup- a substance derived from corn that is used to sweeten foods and beveragesDisaccharides- composed of lactose, sucrose, maltose (2 sugar units)- Lactose- produced by mammary glands (galactose and glucose)- Maltose- formed during the chemical breakdown of starch(glucose and glucose)- Sucrose- found primarily in fruits and vegetables (fructose and glucose)Glycosidic bonds- a type of chemical bond that forms between two monosaccharaides- Alpha glycosidic bond- a downward-facing type of glycosidic bond between two monosaccharide- Beta bond- an upward-facing type of glycosidic bond between two monosaccharide Complex carbohydrates- category of carbohydrate that includes oligosaccharides and polysaccharides Oligosaccharides- carbohydrate made of relatively few (3-10 sugar units) monosaccharide, composed of raffinose and stachyose Polysaccharides- compose of glycogen, starch, dietary fiber (more than 10 sugar units)- Glycogen- storage form of glucose in the body (liver and skeletal muscles), highly branched arrangement of glucose, broken down quickly for energy- Carbohydrate loading- a technique used to increase the body’s glycogen stores- Starch- a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. Produced by most green plants as an energy storeo Amylose- a type of starch consisting of a linear (unbranched) chain of glucose molecules o Amylopectin- a type of starch consisting of a highly branched arrangement of glucose molecules o Structure of starch- plants store glucose in the form of starch. Both forms of starch (amylose and amylopectin) consist of glucose molecules bonded together- Fiber- polysaccharide found in plants that is not digested or absorbed in the human small intestine, promotes growth of beneficial intestinal bacteriao Dietary fiber- fiber that naturally occurs in plants  Soluble dietary fiber- dissolves in water Insoluble- does not dissolve in watero Functional fiber- fiber that is added to food to provide beneficial physiological effects o Total fiber- the combination of dietary fiber and functional fiber Photosynthesis- process whereby plants use energy from the sun to produce glucose from carbon dioxide and waterAlcohol Sugars-another group of alternate sweeteners are neither sugars nor alcohol. They occur naturally in plants particularly fruits and have half the sweetness and calories of sucrose, found in sugar-free items (only 2 to 3 kcal per gram) Lactose intolerance- inability to digest the milk sugar lactose; caused by a lack of the enzyme lactase- Symptoms: abdominal cramping, bloating, flatulence, and diarrhea can occur within 30-60 minutes- Certain diseases, medications, and surgery that damage the intestinal mucosa can increase the risk of lactose intolerance Glycemic response- the change in blood glucose following the ingestion of a specific food Glycemic load- a rating system used to categorize the body’s glycemic response to foods that takes into account the glycemic index as well as the amount of carbohydrate typically Glucagon- hormone secreted by the pancreas a-cells in response to decreased blood glucose(helps increase blood glucose)Digestion/absorption of carbohydrates: starch digestion begins in the mouth, disaccharides are digested in the small intestine, monosaccharaides are readily absorbed from the small intestineInsulin- hormone secreted from the pancreas b-cells in response to increase blood glucose (promotes energy storage) Glyconeogenesis- synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources Ketone- organic compound used as an energy source during starvation, fasting, low-carbohydrate diets, or uncontrolled diabetes Ketosis- condition resulting from excessive ketones in the bloodRDA (recommended dietary allowance)- carbohydrates – 130 g per day for adults, 175 and 210 g per dayduring pregnancy AMDRS (Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range) carbohydrates- 45-60% of total energy (4 kcal per gram= consuming 225 and 325 g of carbohydrates each day)FINDING RECOMMENDED TOTAL CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE – total energy requirement (kcal/day) multiplied by recommended %kcal from carbohydrate in a decimal (.45 or .65) divided by 4Diabetes mellitus- medical condition characterized by a lack of insulin or impaired insulin utilization that result in elevated blood glucose levels Type 1 diabetes- aka juvenile-onset diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, this form of diabetes results when the pancreas is no longer able to produce insulin due to a loss of insulin-producing b-cells Type 2 diabetes- aka adult-onset diabetes and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, this form of diabetes results when insulin-requiring cells have difficulty responding to insulin Insulin resistance- condition characterized by the inability of insulin receptors to respond to the hormone insulin Secondary diabetes- diabetes that results from other diseases, medical conditions, or medication Gestational diabetes- type of diabetes characterized by insulin that develops in pregnancy Risk Factors of diabetes: - Family history of diabetes- History of gestational diabetes or delivery of a baby weighing more than nine pounds at birth- Sedentary lifestyle (exercise fewer than 3 times per week)- Overweight or obese - History of vascular disease - Being African American, Hispanic, Native American, or Pacific Island decent - Having polycystic ovary syndrome - Having high blood pressure - Having low

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KSU NUTR 23511 - Chapter 4

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