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Exam 2 Identity theory and construction An interactionist theory o We interact with others to acquire and negotiate our identities through symbolic interacton Definitions and examples of identities ethnic religious gender cultural o Cultural language etc The distinct ways that people classify and represent their experiences o Religious principle and spiritual traditions World perspectives o Gender sense of masculinity or femininity and acceptance of membership in a category o Ethnic often co exists with racial identity may shape ones thinking perceptions feelings and behavior Heritage descent Self is established or validated or challenged how when o A global sense of who one is o Subset of identities plus all the thoughts and feelings about the self SELF esteem SELF concept o Self in context self is a social object defined by acknowledging participation or membership in social relations Ex Me as a TA me as a student Ascribed vs achieved identities o Ascribed assigned at birth involuntary something we cannot choose o Achieved accomplished over a lifetime ability and skill Changes in status may result in new identities may be a long continuous process Parts of identity roles and personal characteristics o Role expected behavior of someone with a given status Role derived identities do not exhaust all of a person s identities o Personal Characteristics Personal identities consist of clusters of characteristics not associated with any particular social position Each of us experiences different social interactions no two people will have the same identities Identity Theory an organized set of characteristics that define one s self Developed from symbolic interaction theory We acquire our identities through social interaction with others so identities are social constructions Identity established through two processes o Apposition bringing a person together with similar social objects o Opposition setting a person apart from other social objects who are who are we like we unlike Identity Maintenance o Categorizing characterization through choice of dress and appearance o Identification of and with others o Social feedback Programs appearance created by the wearer to establish Reviews responses made by observers about the wearers identity appearance o We try on identities Ethnic Identity Race characteristics of people Ethnicity generation to the next Ethnic group o A socially constructed term that refers to only the physical o Refers to cultural features that may be handed down from one Identity struggle Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism o Group that is socially distinguished from other groups has developed its own subcultures and has a shared feeling of peoplehood o An interaction in which there is a discrepancy between the identity a person claims to possess and the identity attributed to that person by others o The tendency to believe that ones own ways customs and beliefs are the right ways and everyone elses are inferior o The recognition that one culture cannot be judged by the standards of another culture arbitrarily o Each bulture needs to be understood in its own context or by its own standards Assimilation Acculturation o The process by which individuals in a culture or subculture are accepted into the majority culture o The extent to which ethnic cultural minorities participate in the cultural traditions values beliefs and practices of their own culture verses those of the dominant society How do we distinguish societies from one another How do we communicate our ethnic identity Gender Identity Sex o Refers to the division of humanity into biological categories of male and female Gender Sex differences Gender difference Gender identity women Masculinity vs feminity o Refers to a social distinction based on culturally conceived and learned ideas about what constitutes appropriate appearance and behavior for males and females o Biological differences between men and women o Social constructed differences between men and women o The way men and women learn to think of themselves as men and o Masculinity has traditionally been associated with assertiveness competence self control power independence certain physical characteristics and dress in the US o Feminitiy has traditionally been associated with helplessness passivity compliance non competitive warm dependence certain physical characteristics and dress in the US o Consists of the beliefs and values associated with gender o Occurs when people use dress to emphasize and exaggerate a physical Gender ideology Gender signals sex difference Gender roles o The attitudes and activities that a culture links to each sex o The active expression of gender identity o Often evident in film or other cultural forms Sexism Androgyny traits of both male and female o A person who doesn t fit cleanly into the typical gender roles of their society o May identify as beyond gender between genders moving across genders entirely genderless or any of all of these ex Bi gender or gender fluid no external influences o Can be either physical or psychological ex Intersexual refers to having both male and female sex organs Transsexual o Identifying or desiring to live and be accepted as a member of the sex opposite to that assigned at birth o Many people have wish to alter their bodies o Differences in identification after transitioning Transgender o A term applied to a variety of individuals behaviors and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role assigned at birth and the role traditionally held by society o The state of ones gender identity not matching their assigned sex o Does not imply any specific form of sexual orientation o May identify as heterosexual homosexual bisexual pansexual polysexual asexual Social construction Evidence of gender roles Negotiation of identity in daily life Gender refers to a social distinction based on culturally conceived and learned ideas about what constitutes appropriate appearance and behavior for males and females Sex refers to the division of humanity into biological categories or male and female Religious identity Religion o A unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things o Social structures reflecting people s relationships with the supernatural organizing their ethical codes philosophies moral conduct Sacred dress sacrificial godly priestly sanctity o Sacrificial dress of the victim to be sacrificed to the gods sacrifice may be symbolic as in cutting off one s

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OSU CSFRST 2372 - Exam 2

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