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**Exam 2: Thursday 3/6 in class**The exam will consist of:25 multiple-choice questions (2 pts. each = 50 pts.)15 points short answer10 points short essaysTotal: 75 points**Pay close attention to recommendations regarding research methodology,or the pros and cons of various approaches discussed in class!!**This is what you need to know for the exam:2-18-142-18-14 - Understand nonprobability sampling methods and how they are different from random sampling - Use this when random sampling it not possible- See below point for more information- Be able to define and provide examples of the following: Availability (convenience) sampling- Take who you can get- Exploratory or qualitative researcho I.e. experiments in intro to psych classes, the experiments that they use psych students forQuota sampling- Making sure that the sample represents certain aspects of the population but can’t know all the characteristics and not random- Represents characteristics in proportion to their prevalence in the populationo I.e. Dads and # of stay at home dadso Oversampling for different groups i.e. boys in HDFS taken nonrandomly to make sure to represent HDFS boysPurposive sampling- Studying a subset of limited group/ “key informant”o I.e. people who know a topic, jobs for grads- Provide examples of hidden populations - Sensitive nature of behaviorso Drug users, homeless, sex workers- Define and provide examples of techniques for sampling hidden populations: Targeted sampling- “street outreach”- Using outreach techniques to attract a sample of people in hidden populationo i.e. homeless peopleTime-space sampling- Figuring out when and where hidden population members gather and randomly sample the places and/or timeso Trying to be more systematico I.e. Drug dealers work from 11pm-2am and 4am-6am, randomly sample thosetimesSnowball sampling- Participants (referred to as “seeds”) identify other participants- This is very useful in hard to reach and hard to identify yet connected populations- However, this can magnify bias and the socially isolated people are underrepresentedo I.e. drug dealers know each other, but they might all sell the same drugs (bias)and they don’t know the more socially isolated onesRespondent-driven sampling - Each “seed” gets a certain number of coupons to give to other members of the population, and it keeps going until desired sample size is reachedo I.e. 5 coupons per person- Know how the New Parents Project (NPP) sampled - Convenienceo Childbirth edu. Classes, newspaper ads, movie ads- Quotao Tried to get at least 25 cohabitating; tried to get sample to represent Franklin Countyo Oversampled minority expecting parents- Describe benefits of observational methods - Get more objective information- Can tell us of the effects of a particular context on a behavior- Provide a detailed analysis of behavior or interpersonal processeso I.e. Partner one did this partner two did this- Describe drawbacks of observational methods, including observer influence and observer bias - Time consuming and expensiveo Data collectiono Coder training- Inconsistency across researchers and/or labs- Sampling issueso Bias and size- Not many people agree to be observed because it oculd be intrusive- People who do agree can have similarities- Observer influence o Presence of observer can change behavioro Most observations are no longer live but video is often tuned down behaviors- Observer bias o Observers see what they want to see- Describe benefits and drawbacks of field vs. lab observations - Field Observations o Naturalistico Benefit Behavior in natural setting (so more generalizable)o Drawback May not see behaviors you are looking for- Maybe fight only in car, or not that week- Lab Observations o Structured observationo Benefit Can set up situation to elicit behavior- Sometimes easiero Drawback Behavior may not be natural or

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OSU HDFS 2900 - Exam 2

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