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Lecture 1- Chapter 1 microbiology (class definition) = the study of microorganisms; excluding multicellular organisms such as parasites/virusesmembrane- selective barrier that allows for the passage of only certain particlescell- a compartment enclosed by a membrane that maintains homeostasis, metabolism, growth, and reproductionhomeostasis- allows cells to regulate internal environment/maintain a constant statemetabolism- transforms energy to build new compartments (anabolism) and decompose old compartments (catabolism); uses ATP growth- maintains higher rate of anabolism than catabolism during some point of existencereproduction- ability to replicate on its ownorganism- a collection of one or more cells where the primary purpose of each cell is survival/reproduction of the group of cellsmicroscopic- can not be seen with the human eyemicroorganism- single celled microscopic organismvirus- small infectious agent that replicates only inside cells of other organisms; NOT a microorganism the scientific method- used every day to test new theories; set of propositions/concepts that provide reliable, systematic, rigorous account of an aspect of the universe; makes testable predictions and can be verifiedMajor people/impactsZacharias Janssen: invented 1st compound microscopeRobert Hooke: 1st to describe microbes; drew fruiting structure of moldsAnton van Leeuwenhoek: 1st to describe bacteria Louis Pasteur: disproved SPONTANEOUS GENERATION (that microorganisms arise spontaneously from non-living matter); led to development of methods for controlling growth of microorgs (pasteurization) Robert Koch: formulated postulated for linking specific microorg to specific diseaseKoch’s postulates- set of criteria for proving that a given microorganism causes a given disease **microbe must be present in all cases of disease/absent from healthy organism; must be isolated in pure culture; must cause same disease in healthy hostAlexander Fleming: worked with plates of bacterium S. aureus, noticed that when a contaminant mold was on the plates the mold excreted a substance killing the bacteria around it; grew pure culture of the mold, discovered Penicillin Ferdinand Cohn: heat resistance in bacteria; discovered that some bacteria form endosporesOther terms:chemolithotrophy: form of metabolism in which energy is generated from inorganic compoundsdifferentiation: modification of cellular components to form a new structure such as a sporeenzyme: a protein catalyst that functions to speed up chemical reactionsevolution: descent with modification leading to new forms/speciesgenome: organism’s full complement of genesgenomics: the identification and analysis of genomesmicrobial community: 2 or more populations of cells that coexist/interactmicrobial ecology: study of microorganisms in their natural environmentspathogen: disease-causing microorganismsterile: free of all living organisms/viruses Chapter 1 Review Questions1. 6 properties associated w/ the living state- metabolism, reproduction, differentiation, communication, motility, andevolutionall- metabolism, communication, evolutionsome- differentiation, motility, reproduction2. Cells are both catalysts and genetic entities, how do these differ? catalytic- carry out metabolic reactions; specify what can occurgenetic- translation of genetic info; specifies when it can occur 3. ecosystem: the biotic factors (living) together with the abiotic factors (nonliving) of a habitat in the environment; ORGANISMS + NONLIVING ENVIRO= ECOSYSTEM(habitat: the environment in which microbial population resides)*microorganisms effect the ecosystem by using nutrients from the environment and excreting waste products into the environment contribute to: primary production, decomposition, nutrient cycling of an ecosystem! 4. evolution of cyanobacteria- OXYGENATION OF THE ATMOSPHEREbefore- only anaerobic metabolismsafter- aerobic respiration, evolution of eukaryotic cell/multicellularity 5. microorganisms are more than just disease! why?maintaining human health, fix nitrogen (agriculture), important in food/beverage production6. Hooke- first to describe microorganismsLeeuwenhoek- first to actually see bacteria in a microscopeCohn- father of bacteriology, first to identify Bacillus, led to sterilization and aseptic techniques 7. Pasteur’s flasks with swan necks eliminated ingredients essential for spontaneous generation; microorganisms that contaminated them were carried via air 8. pure culture- a culture containing a single kind of microorganismobtained by- isolation of single colonies on solid media 9. Koch’s postulates- ^^ up there**still use postulates as a guide for determining the causative agents of diseases/developing successful treatments for prevention and cure of diseases 10. Beijerinck and Winogradsky- developed the field of environmental microbiology-design and implementation of the enrichment culture technique and isolation/characterization of bacteria responsible for cycling nitrogen and sulfur enrichment culture technique: a method for isolating specific microorganisms from nature using specific culture media and incubation conditions 11. basic: pertain to the advancement of knowledge in the area of the fundamental processes of life; ex: biochemistryapplied: directly linked to important practical problems that affect human welfare; ex: medicineInspiration Question: panspermia theory- theory that suggests that life on Earth did not originate from our planet,but was transported from somewhere else in the Universe. Lecture 2- Chapter 2 Notes/Review Questions light microscope- examine cells at low magnificationselectron- examine cells at high magnificationresolution- ability to distinguish two adjacent objects as distinct and separate; a function of the physical properties of light bright-field- slight differences in contrast that exist between them and surrounding medium; cells difficult to see because they lack significant contrast w/ the medium compound bright-field- two lenses- objective and ocular total magnification of compound microscope= product limit of microscopes- 2000Xnumerical aperture- measure of light-gathering ability higher magnification= higher NA light microscopes- distance between waves= wavelength (lambda); can see as small as 200nm (0.2 micrometers)refraction- change in direction of a wave due to a change in velocity at the interface between two transmission media magnification is achieved by refraction!diffraction- various phenomenon


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PSU MICRB 201 - Chapter 1

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