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CAS 100A Exam #1What are the 5 classic Cannons?Invention, arrangement, language style, memory, deliveryInventiongenerating and selecting content and strategies for speech.Components of the communication modelsender, receiver, message, contextMessageThe combination of signs and symbolsChannel (medium)a form of energy that can transmit a message to a receivers senses. ex. the light to transmit visual imagesExternal noiseenvironmental factors that interfere with the transmission of the messageInternal noiseInattention or selective perceptionsDecodingThe audience receives the message and interprets itFeedbackThe receiver encodes their response to the senders original messageCognitive meaningsOur conscious thoughts that influence isEmotional meaningsunconscious thoughtsEncodingfinding symbols to represent cognitive meaningsSignsemotional meanings expressed through such actions as trembling from anxiety. These are not expressed voluntarily and are not encoded.Rhetorical situationWhere a problem creates a need for communication. People's beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors can be influenced through messages in order to diminish/resolve the problem.Three components of a rhetorical situationexigence, audience, constraintsexigenceA problem that can be corrected through communicationWhat are the 4 major communication constraints?Contextual- Time, setting Audience- psychological factors Topic- complexity, information available speaker- speaking ability, personal knowledge, characterWhat are the 4 main reasons for making speeches?to inform, to convince (persuade), to motivate, to celebrateWhat strategies should be used in an informative speech?explanations, definitions, examples, descriptionsWhat strategies should be used in a persuasive speech?argument, reason, proofWhat is a thesis statementthe central idea for the audience to understand. Problem speech:description (X is a problem) Policy: recommended solution (we should do Y to solve problem X) Motivational: recommended action ( YOU should do Z to help with problem X)Purpose StatementSpecifies the psychological response the speech is trying to produce. Problem: understanding (I want my audience to understand that x is a problem and how it effects them) Policy: Belief or conviction ( I want my audience to agree...) Motivational: readiness to actDemographicsAges, gender, group affiliations, ethnicity, etc.Lay audienceListeners have no knowledge about the topicThree types of audiencesLay audience, mixed- audience, expert audienceBasic functions of a conclusionreinforce thesis, summarize main ideas, signal that the end is coming, leave audience in the appropriate frame of mindComponents of an effective introthesis/purpose statement, attention getter, credibility statement, audience adaption statement, preview of main pointsHow to decide on organization stylesubject matter, purpose, audience.Primacy vs. regencyWhat is the central idea/ residual message. Will it be remembered better if it comes first or last?What is the most common way of arranging the main points of a policy speechProblem-solutionInductive speech arrangementA few facts at the beginning moving into a conclusionDeductive speech arrangementStart with a conclusion and then prove it with factsTechniques for arranging main points of a speechChronological, spatial, cause/effect. need-plan advantages, motivated sequence, topical-categoricalEthosAudience perception of speakers credibility. Establish by: trustworthy sources, connect with audience, good preparationLogosIdeas and reasoning. Human mind can perceive logical relationships among ideas and ofreaching conclusions based on the relationshipsPathosEmotional impact and the audience's initial mood and emotional stateElements of languageclarity, simplicity, concreteness, familiarity, vividnessImageryDescriptions, simile, metaphor, adjectivesRhythm (how it can be created)Parallel wording, repetition, alliteration, antithesis ( juxtaposition of contrasting ideas), onomatopoeia, emotion-laden wordsStyle devicesPersonal pronouns, active language, rhythm, imageryTypes of memoryimpromptu, memorized, manuscript, extemporaneous ( cas 100)Critical listeningListening to a message and being able to pass judgment and discern/ distinguish the reasonable and unreasonable. Being able to critique a speech.Critical thinkingAbility to form your own judgments and defend and argue your decisions. Includes the ability to distinguish fact from opinion.AdvocacySpeaking out in support/opposition to a particular way of dealing with communal needs and goalsResponsibility of a speaker to listenersGive the facts, show how the facts connect logically to the conclusions, respect for dif, viewpoints/civility, respect of the listeners intelligence, decisions, beliefsResponsibility to ourselves as speakersbe true to yourself, believe in what you are advocating, do not plagiarizeResponsibility to ourselves as listenerslisten critically to facts and reasoning (duty of resoluteness), listen to messages with an open mind(duty of openness),message strategiesDefinitions, descriptions, examples, illustrations, demonstrationsRule of divisionin an outline, an idea must be sub-divided into at least two sub-pointsWorking outlinekeyword outlinePreparation outlinefull sentence outline with quotations. still open for revisionSpeaking outlineBriefer and more condensed than prep. outline. Can be keywordFormal outlineIncludes bibliography, final draftTypes of outlineworking, preparation. speaking, formalMethods for creating transitionsVocal, internal summaries, internal previews, signpostingWhat are the 6 elements of style?Clarity, accuracy/precision, simplicity, concreteness, familiarity, vividnessVocal components of speech:volume, pace, tone, articulation, fluencyPhysical components of speech:eye contact, gestures, posture, appearanceaccuracygetting the facts straightprevisionusing the best words to represent or define an ideacircular argumentrestates what is already given in different termsred herringthe claim serves to distract the audience from an issue, ignoring the questionAd Homineman attack on a persons character rather than their argumentPublic advocacyactivity of speaking or writing to civic audiences and arguing policies aimed at community issuescivic engagementactive engagement in community life and social


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PSU CAS 100A - Exam 1

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