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Sociology 2310Review for Exam 1Theory WorksheetBIOLOGICAL THEORIES- All physical type theories are based on the premise the STRUCTURE determinesFUNCTION.- The criminal is viewed as different or defective and therefore biologically INFERIOR.- CESARE LOMBROSO is the author of the “The Born Criminal” and his general theory of crime was one of DEGENERACY.- Lombroso thought the criminal was a throwback to an earlier evolutionary form orAPE-LIKE in nature- Lombroso thought the “cause” of the stigma of the criminal as well as criminal behavior was _____________________. The stigmata did not “cause” the criminal behavior- Goring sought to DISPROVE Lombroso’s findings- Goring found that criminals were 1-2 INCHES shorter and 3-7 POUNDS lighter than non-criminals- Goring concluded that crime was INHERITED- Hooten conducted a large study that REFUTED Gorings work and SUPPORTED Lombroso’s work- Define tautological reasoning:OXY-MORONS (A BEGINNER WHO IS JUST STARTING)- Identify Sheldon’s 3 body types and describe the personality characteristics he associated with each1. ECTOMORPHS – a. LEAN AND SLENDERb. FRAGILE, QUIET, SENSITIVE2. MESOMORPHS – a. MUSCLE MASS AND WARMb. ACTIVE, ASSERTIVE, AGGRESSIVE3. ENDOMORPH – a. TENDENCY TO BE OVERWEIGHTb. EASY GOING AND TOLERANT- Sheldon and the Gluecks believed that most juvenile delinquents were MESOMORPHS- According to Hutchings and Mednick’s adoption study which was the more predictive variable of criminality in the son – the adoptive father’s criminality or the biological father’s criminality?o BIOLOGICAL FATHERSOCIAL STRUCTURE THEORIESSHAW & McKAY: SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY•Basic Assumptions•Social stratification•Definition of social strata•UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POWER, WEALTH, AND PRESTIGE•Theory of Relative Deprivation•Model of City Growth•5 Zones•Zone 1: BUSINESS LOOP•Zone 2: ZONE IN TRANSITION•Zone 3: ZONE OF WORKINGMEN’S HOMES_•Zone 4: RESIDENTIAL ZONE•Zone 5: COMMUTER ZONE•The zone that is most vulnerable to crime is ZONE 2: ZONE IN TRANSITION.•The most predictive variable of criminal behavior, according to Shaw and McKay was SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION•Shaw and McKay’s research provided an important departure from the CITY GROWTH model, which was popular at the time (1920s) to a study of criminal behavior from the ______________________ perspective. This is perhaps their most significant contribution to the study of criminal behavior.MERTON•Applied the general theory of Anomie borrowed from _____________ to the particular problem of crime in American society.•Merton’s theory of Anomie stresses the idea that American society emphasizes ______________________ without providing ____________________________•Merton defined Anomie as WHEN THERE IS AN OVEREMPHASIS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF CULTURAL GOALS TO THE EXCLUSION OF THE NORMS AND WHEN THE INSITITUTIONALIZED MEANS ARE NOT ASSESSIBLE AND AVAILABLE TO ALL IN SOCIETY, THEN MANY PEOPLE CAN BE EXPECTED TO TURN TO UNAPPROVED AND UNACCEPTABLE MEANS OF ATTAINING THESE GOALS.•Merton identified 5 modes of adaptation to Anomie. These are•1. CONFORMITY•ORIENTED TOWARDS GOALS AND USING INSTITUTIONALIZED MEANS•COLLEGE•2. INNOVATION•ORIENTED TOWARD GOALS BUT NOT USING INTITUTIONALIZED MEANS•DRUG DEALERS/BANK ROBBERS•3. RITUALISM•NOT ORIENTED TOWARD GOALS BUT UTILIZED INTITUTIONALIZED MEANS•LOW PAID BUREAUCRAT WHO DOES EVERYTHING BY THE BOOK NO MATTER WHAT•4. RETREATIST•ORIENTED NEITHER TOWARDS GOALS NOR INTITUTIONALIZED MEANS•STONERS•5. REBELLION•GOALS AND MEANS REALLY DON'T APPLY•MOONIES, SYMBIONESE LIBERATION ARMY•Be able to describe and define the above modes of adaptation with respect to whether the person in question is attempting to achieve the cultural goal of monetary success as well as whether the person is utilizing the institutional mean of achieving this goal.•Be able to provide examples for each mode of adaptation•These categories do not describe personality types; rather they define methods by which we all adapt to the cultural strain of Anomie. Be able to explain this.COHEN•Cohen differed from Merton in that he thought delinquents were striving for ACHIEVING STATUS instead of ATTAINING MONETARY SUCCESS•Cohen found that most juvenile delinquency was COLLECTIVE IN NATURE and characterized by “malicious, negativistic and non-utilitarian behavior”•Examples of “non-utilitarian juvenile delinquency behavior” include ____________________________________________•Cohen felt that juvenile gangs have a SEPARATE CULTURE from the dominant, middle class culture with a different set of values for MEASURING STATUS.•Cohen utilized the categories of status developed by Everett Hughes. These are 1._________________________ - Defintion: _____________________________________2.________________________ - Definition: _______________________________________CLOWARD & OHLIN•Sought to synthesize (or combine) the work of COHEN and MERTON•Felt that striving for monetary success and status were not mutually exclusive and that, in fact, they could be SIMULTANEOUS strivings.•Identified 4 categories of lower-class youth, depending upon whether they were striving for status and/or monetary success. Idenitfy these categories in terms of these 2 variables •1. _________________________ •2. __________________________•3. __________________________•4. __________________________•Which of the above categories did Cloward & Ohlin believed most juvenile delinquents came from?•TYPE 3•Cloward & Ohlin identified 3 subcultures within the Type 3 category. These are:•1. CRIMINAL•2. CONFLICT/VIOLENT•3. RETREATISM• Which of the above 3 categories do all Type 3 kids desire to join?•CRIMINAL•Why can’t all Type 3 kids join their desired category?•NOT ALL KIDS ARE WELCOMED INTO GANGS•What happens to Type 3 kids who are rejected from their desired category?••Which of the 3 subcultures produces the delinquents who engage in Cohen’s “malicious, negativistic, and non-utilitarian behavior”?•CONFLICT/VIOLENTSOCIAL PROCESS THEORIES•While social structure theories are on the ______________ level of analysis, social process theories focus on the __________ level of analysis.•Social process theories do not emphasize social stratification as the determinant of crime; rather they focus on the influence of FAMILY RELATIONS on the criminal.•According to social

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OSU SOCIOL 2310 - Exam 1

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