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Values (Socialization)  moral beliefsNorms (Breaching)  beliefs in actionCulture  the sum of social categories and concepts we recognize in addition to our beliefs, behaviors and practices.” Basically everything except natureMaterial culture – physical environment, tools and technology, media, and artNonmaterial culture – values and norms of any given social groupConcept of private land property in contemporary culture versus lands worked on my native AmericansEthnocentrism  when your culture, values, and norms are superior to that of another’sCultural Relativism  you place different cultures on some kind of hierarchy, they all seem equalE.g. female genital “circumcision” mutilation (1) Clitoridectomy, (2) Exition, (3) Infibulation etc. wherein the procedure takes place 200 million girls every year, mostly in Egypt, Somalia, for religious and social purposes. Also the prevalence of plastic surgery in certain cultures. May be gross to westernized culture, and Feminists would say that it is used to reestablish patriarchy to oppress women. Conflict between going against this with ethnocentrism is to say that they are barbaric or cultural relativism where you are blatantly ignoring mutilationIdeology  A system of concepts and relations an understanding of cause and effect. An explicit and consciously articulated system of beliefsE.g. Republican vs. Democrats political ideologiesHegemony  a condition by which a dominant group uses its power to elicit the voluntary consent of the masses. Domination by belief and not my coercion. Based upon taken for granted concepts, belief’s, and values in our culture that perpetuate inequality and the power of ruling groupsDirect domination – different from hegemony because it rules by forceE.g. capitalist hegemony, we believe in it without having a gun pointed to our head. Capitalism is often justified because people are naturally greedy and the system complements intrinsic traits wellEthnocentrism supported patriarchy, slavery and colonial mentality. Women was not allowed to vote, they get paid less because it’s a risk to invest in someone who believe that once they have a child they must leave their job to take care of them. Black men do not have souls. Westernized cultures can help educate and civilize inferior colonized countryCAPITALIST EXAMPLE OF HEGEMONY AND IDEOLOGYHegemony  belief that we should have a capitalist economy; belief that economic growth is good and desirableIdeology 1 government intervention is good for the capitalist economy high taxes on the wealthy promotes economic growthIdeology 2  government intervention is bad for the economy, taxes on the wealthy stifles economic growthMedia  any format or vehicle that carry present, or communication information. This definition would include newspapers, periodicals, magazines, books, and posters. But it would also include wax tables, sky writing, web pages, and the children’s game of telephoneOwnership – few number of corporation that control a majority of the US media: Time Warner, Viacom, NBC, Disney.Concentration of ownership is controlled, but ironically large companies publish wide range of opinions. Does not necessarily lead to narrow information, but it sometimes can (e.g. weapons on mass destruction led to war with Iraq)Aimed at making profit, so integrity of news is sometimes overlooked for better entertainment. That is why BBC is seen as most reliable because it is funded by the government not a private companyConsumer culture – advertising promotes consumption. E.g. Channel 1 is shown to public children schools, their programming shows a lot of advertising. Average child watching TV than they do in school, most of what they see are advertising. Low to middle class parents prioritize their child’s social comfort, hence buying products, to help them feel like they fit inStereotypes – hegemony that supports racial domination. Two dimensional images of races, only white people are complex people. Black people are either evil or good. E.g. Hollywood movies African Americans are rarely represented in films; however nowadays they are overly romanticizedSaturday Night Live – Kerri Washington plays all the female black parts of the show because they do not have a regular. On the one hand, SNL is owning up to not having any black women in their show, but they make Washington’s different roles highlights racial problems, which becomes her master statusHarold and Kumar vs. Japanese characters of Mickey Rooney – Harold and Kumar both come from different parts of Asia, but their race becomes irrelevant to the show; they are just friends“The Manic Pixie Dream Girl” – girls that are kind of sexy, but they are also smart and funny. They defy the stereotypes of women, but then again they are still a type. Their characters are poorly developed, they perform a function for the male personality; exist solely as tools for the manGirls TV show – stereotypes are being defied in different ways. Gender stereotype, a character is not a sex object although she is naked a lot in the show. She defies the concept of a lead character, she’s spoiled, makes terrible decisions, she complains a lot – that’s basically every male character for every other character, which is more acceptable than an annoying female character. Second season, she sleeps with a republican black man in response to her being criticized to not hiring minoritiesDiscussion about Media, Gender and Racial HegemonyThe Republican African American in show Girls, represented a “flipped hegemony” race of a black guy and also a conservative republicanFilm “Consuming Kids” – consumer culture perpetuated in Channel One shown to children in low income schools“Symbolic indulgence”  low income families buy trendy toys for their kids to compensate for their economical statuses“Symbolic deprivation”  whereas, middle income families do not buy trendy toys to save moneyIdeology vs. Hegemony in flying first class vs. flying couch, you don’t see people flying in economy using the business class’s bathroomLecture 5: Culture and Media 02/28/2014Values (Socialization)  moral beliefs Norms (Breaching)  beliefs in action Culture  the sum of social categories and concepts we recognize in addition to our beliefs, behaviors and practices.” Basically everything except nature - Material culture – physical environment, tools and technology,


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BU CAS SO 100 - Culture and Media

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