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NNNNooootttteeeebbbbooooooookkkk::::yeaeun94's notebookCCCCrrrreeeeaaaatttteeeedddd::::2/5/2013 9:24 AMUUUUppppddddaaaatttteeeedddd::::2/5/2013 10:46 AMTTTTaaaaggggssss::::Contexts, Cultures, Empires, RomeUUUURRRRLLLL::::file:///Cultures & Contexts: Political EmpiresRome: How it Worked1. Julius Caesar and the Political Economy of Roman Empire2. The Emperor as a Ruling Institution3. Material Life of Empire4. Culture Life of Empire5. The New Politics of Late Empire and their consequencesJulius CaesarVery practical, strategic -Thinks through number of troops, supplies, the opponent, etc -Work through native elites, keeping allies loyal"Spectacularly Brutal" to the defeated enemy -violent -however, also used more complicated and practical methods too -ie: sends Helvations back to homeland, but it's burnt down to prevent organization and another uprising. He tells the neighboring tribe to supply the people with grain and tells them to rebuild the land back themselves. This creates a buffer zone. Power was often held in one person--the Romans knew of this dangerElecting term limits, multiple consoles, new courts--institutional limitations to personal powerThe Emperor as a Ruling InstitutionJulius Caesar 44 BCE: named "Dictator for Life" and named a god When Caesar was assassinated, this led to a series of wars Romance between Anthony and Cleopatra: Anthony gave land to Cleopatra which led to 15 yrs of war but ultimately gave rise to hereditary monarchsAugustus (Octavian): adopted son of Julius Caesar (grandson of sister)Imperium maius Tribunicia potestasLex de imperioPatrimoniumPater PaterfamiliasThe emperor is the king of kings [over the subordinates], He is the final legal authority over allEmpire and Law is not mutually exclusive--they worked togetherThere was no rule to succession---Eventually, the senate decided怀Securing Economy [specializes in a specific industry & Securing Loyalty [esp. since the empire was so large]: 200,000 tons of wheat= feeds Roman soldiers (1/2 million people) Ration: Average of 2 lbs wheat, 1.5 lbs meat, 1/2 c vegetable oil, wine were provided to each soldier Taxation was key to sustaining the enormous empire inheritance, slaves, imports, exports, etcThe empire had to remain big to survive--Culture helps sustain the empire and the power art, law, education, architecture, etc Local customs were not forcefully changed or convert to Roman beliefs but the Roman culture was rather added on (there was no 'civilizing mission') "Diversity ordered by Imperial Power" --Greg Woolf The key was to implement Roman influences in addition, not in place ofBorder system, public baths, amphitheaters, sewage system, etc Use of concrete, more details (triumphal arch to celebrate Roman victories), public baths needed elaborate water systems (aqueducts); steam room, bath rooms, conversing room Colosseum: chariot racing, gladiators were popular; people sat inside according to social status Roman Law not about equality main idea was to revision of law to limit abuse of power Romans created legal professions--allowing people to make interpretation of the law (major human innovation!) -Law based on reason, -Law is universally valid, -Law is connected to organized powerRoman Education Paideia (Greek idea of education) Humanitas (Roman interpretation meaning civilized behavior) Barbarians: uncivilized peopleRoman Religion Eclectic about religion Many Gods, transformed over time Ultimately resulted in monotheism: ChristianityCitizenship to extend citizenship outside Rome creating a hierarchy of people Why did Rome Fail?How rich can it get without attracting outside attention?Was the implementation of Christianity the beginning of the downfall?After 500 yrs, the empire began to shrink because: -civil wars, desertion of loyalists, retreat of Roman elites, ambition of outsiders to enter

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NYU MAP 552 - Julius Caesar

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