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Communication Arts 368Test 1 Review GuideFebruary 2014Test:The test consists of 45 multiple-choice questions. Approximately 40% of the questions will come from the readings. The remainder will come from lecture. You are not expected to know dates. You do not have to know the researchers who did specific studies, but you should be able to identify names that are discussed extensively in the text like Plato, Aristotle, and Hovland. You are not expected to know small details of specific studies (for example, no question will ask you to identify the details of the Iyengar and Kinder agenda-setting study). However, a study may be described, and you will be asked to identify which theory the study illustrates, or if given the theory and study, you should be able to identify the results. When studying from the book, it is best to concentrate on theories, research studies discussed, and italicized terms.The sections below may not include all material for the test. All sections below may not be included on the test. This review guide should not serve as a template for your studying; instead, use it as another resource as you review lecture notes and readings.Persuasion:What is Persuasion?A symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behavior regarding an issue through transmission of a message, in an atmosphere of free choice.What does it entail?1. persuasion is a symbolic process2. involves an attempt to influence: deliberate attempt to influence another person and understanding that the person you are trying to persuade is susceptible to change3. people persuade themselves – people can not be forced to change their attitude on something, you can only activate their desire to and show them the logic behind your reasons4. Persuasion involves the transmission of a message: the message may be verbal or nonverbal and come through a lot of different portals5. Persuasion requires free choice: an individual must feel free to alter his or her own behavior, and have the ability to act otherwiseHow is persuasion different from Propaganda, from Coercion, from Social Influence?Propaganda: specific type of persuasion. It works through the manipulation of symbols, is one sided and seen typically through mass media and institutional sources. Its goal is to make you have a more positive reaction towards something, and works on having a large emotional appealCommunication with which one disagrees and to which the individual attributes hostile intentCoercion: a technique for forcing people to act as the coercer wants them to act, and presumably contrary to their own preferences. It typically employs a threat of some dire consequence if the person does not do what the coercer demands.Social Influence: not deliberate, anything you are influenced by others doesn’t need to on purpose. Ex. Seeing a celeb wear an outfit and then you want to wear that tooIn what ways does persuasion seek to change an individual?To influence your target audience’s attitude and behaviorHow does persuasion change attitudes (shaping, reinforcing, changing)?Shaping: marketers shape attitudes by associating cigarettes with beautiful women and good looking men. They try to shape attitudes through associationsReinforcing: reinforcing a position viewers already hold “join um not beat um”Changing: most important persuasive impact. Although persuasion is a process it does happen. Think about our political views as a country over the last 50 years!What is the Target and the Audience?Audience is the overall people hearing the message, and the target is the portion of the audience the speaker is trying to persuadeWhat is a Persuader?the person who is trying to persuadeWhat does it mean that persuasion is a symbolic process or that people have to persuade themselves?Persuasion is a symbolic process: its like the persuader is the teacher moving the people step by step to a solution, helping them appreciate why they advocated this position solves the problem best.It involves the use of symbols which are used to change attitudes and mold opinionsPeople have to persuade themselves because you cant force people to be persuaded you can only activate their desire to change their own attitudeThere can be benevolent and malevolent persuaders trying to change your mind for good or bad reasons, but both existWhat is manipulation- what does it entail?Manipulation: manipulation is a persuasion technique that occurs when a communicator disguises his or her true persuasive goals hoping to mislead the recipient by delivering an overt message that hides its true intentHistory of Persuasion:Who were the Sophists?a group of Greek teachers that decided to offer courses in rhetoric, as well as other academic areas. They traveled from city to city and sold their knowledge for a feeTwo famous sophists were Gorgias and IsocratesHow did they differ from Plato?Plato was a Greek philosopher and they differed from him because he did not believe in what the sophists were doing. He didn’t believe the sophists were interested in discovering the truth or advancing argumentsPlato believed rhetoric was not deserving of respect on the contrary sophists believed that persuasion was educational and they were democrats willing to each any citizen who could afford their tuitionPlato = are like people who hate advertisements because they lie and stretch the truth, he believed that truth is importantSophists = are like people who address practical persuaders and like persuasion who believe in a more style, oratory, simpler persuasive appeals, persuasive communication was a useful toolWhat is Aristotle’s theory of rhetoric (ethos, pathos, logos)?He was Plato’s best studentHe wrote a book called “rhetoric” that was the most significant work on persuasion“rhetoric is not designed to persuade people but to discover scientific principles of persuasion”developed first scientific approach to persuasionethos: the nature of the communicatorpathos: emotional state of the audiencelogos: message argumentsWhat contributions did the Romans make to the study of rhetoric and persuasion?Practical romans persevered much of the Athenian civilization adapting classical rhetoric works to Roman cultureCicero and Quintilian: wrote treatise on the art of oratory, he emphasized the power of pathos and the power of persuasionAlthough a lot of stuff went down in the Roman Civilization like Christianity etc, these works

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UW-Madison COMARTS 368 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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