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HD 382-001 Exam 1 Study GuideEarly 19th Century- Autocratic parenting was firmly in place. (Willful child + sinful child)- Parents were encouraged to break the will of their children. o “Play” was considered mischievous- Children were regularly beaten - Children were view as small adultsLate 19th Century- G. S. Hall question autocratic parenting- John Watson discouraged responsive parentingAncient Greece- Child sacrifices, infanticide, and child slavery was commono Common in women, infant, and men. Needed to have the perfect child, if they weren’t they weren’t valued as a sacrifice - Childhood ended and full adulthood began between ages 5-7o After 7 years, the child has the same rights as an adult- Parents were educators because it benefited society, not because it benefited the individual. - Women and children were property of men.o Father=leader Mother=teacherMiddle Ages- Rural, Primitive societieso Europe, old England, practiced the feudal system (land owned by the king, and divide the land into proportions and give it to certain royalties) o Was pit in charge of the land, the royal-line allowed people to live/take care of the land.- Every man knew their place according to who he owned service and whom he received it. - Many children died young of disease. P aren’t-child relationship were not warm or closeo Therefore parents did not have the emotional bonds that we do/see today- Formal education was limited to Roman Catholic clergy- Children were mini adults by age 7 at which time they were apprenticed (learn to trade)- Conditions were harsh, more like child slavery, worked for no pay- Kids often were sent to boarding schools, didn’t attend local schools like we do today in out cultureRenaissance- Nobles Sent their children away to live with wet nurses- Biological parents were unconcerned about the quality of care given by wet nurses- Parents were indifferent toward childreno WANTED first born males in order to produce future kingso Some were to inherit the family’s wealth to continue the legacy o Women mostly married men from wealth otherwise they sink into poverty- Towards the end of the Renaissance, the appeared to be recognition of child hoodo Children were given special clothing, recreational activities and read special stories The 1600-1800’s (Views of the Nature of Child)- The “Willful” Child (HobbesHobbesian View)o Hobbes believes a view of a home as “ a man’s castle” o Religious and cultural mandate that a child’s will needs to be tamedo Children remains obedient to master (father) children on same level servantso Home= miniature monarchy o Father ruled over children/wife- Believed in “despotic rule” in the homeo The father was the ruler with the power- Family was a mini monarchy in which children were equal to servantsHD 382-001 Exam 1 Study Guide- Unquestioned obedience to father (master of house) was expected1.) Early Developmentalismo Jean Jacques Rousseau believed that children had unique talents/traits and that theywould unfold on their own. Parents job was to assist in praising those traits/talents, except them and provide an environment o He urged parents to consider the nature of the child, and use gentler methods of guiding a child’s behavioro BUT, also agreed that despotic rule should be followed in the familyo Child obedience valued, encouraged to be obtained through humane methods of discipline o Lead to forming kindergarten and nursery schools. 2.) Environmentalism o British philosopher (John Locke)o A child was a tabula rasa or “blank slate” upon experience to determined your personality trait/your character Meaning how ones “environment” is determinedo Encourages children to be exposed to a more wide variety of experiences and up to parents to allow what the child has. o Parents were viewed individuals who could heavily influence the child’s character/personality trait by their parenting behaviorsADVOCATING FOR NATURE  ROUSSEAU ADVOCATING FOR NURTUREJOHN LOCKE Colonial Period (Colonist families and Slave families)- Rigid Puritan religious orientation influenced by doctrine of John Calvin- “Sinful Child” (Puritans)- Parents believed that children were inherently bad and needed he “hell” beaten out of them. o Common practice for children to be beaten because parents believed that would make them have a more moral child because they needed them to become independent- Corporal punishment was used often and was extremely serve by today’s standardo CORPORAL PUNISHMENT RATHER THEN PARENTAL AFFECTION- Emphasis on early independence - Children who were considered to be disobedient received “correction”took a form of brutal beating in US/EuropeLate 1800’sG. Stanley Hall- Received the 1st Ph. D in psychology in the US.- 1st to influence American childrearing patterns - Began the Child Study movemento Goal was to study the true nature of the child and better understand the child’s needs- He believed children were very different from adults and that responsive parenting “spoiled”children - Believed that Americans were slowly awakening to a recognition that “children are not like adults, with all the faculties of maturity on a reduced scale, but unique and very different creatures”Early 20th centuryAutocratic parenting most prevalent in US- Largely influenced by the idea of the Willful Child (hobes) and Sinful Child (Puritans) - “Drill Sergeant” approacho Harsh and strictHD 382-001 Exam 1 Study Guide- Unquestioned obedience w/ no input or opinion from the child - Strong influence from Behaviorism (John B. Watson)o Watson wanted parents to not be too affectionate o He proposed a “scientific approach” to parenting that was actually not supported by researcho Father of Behaviorism o “Childrearing”o Belief that responsive parenting spoiled children therefore he: Advised parents to not respond to a crying infant Advised parents to feed infants on strict schedule - Used the media to gain wide spread acceptance of his ideas- Ridiculed mother for wanting to show affection to there children- Suggested that parents were overprotective of their children- Use of media Ideas in set of articles that appeared in McCalls magazine that later came out into a book called The Psychological Care of the Infant Child 1930-1940’sEmphasis on Children’s Natural Instincts (Sigmund Freud)- Freudian theory emphasized the importance on a child’s relationship with the

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UA HD 382 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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