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Attitude OutlineA. Definition of attitudeB. Components/structure of attitude- Triparite Theory affective (extent of liking) behavioral  cognitive - properties valence (+)/(-) extremity (extent of positivity or negativity) strength (duration, resistance, ability to predict behavior)**Don’t mix up extremity and strength. I can bet this would be exam questions in multiple choice- Types of attitudes (attitude matrix) positive (high positive, low negative) negative (high negative, low positive) ambivalent (high positive, high negative) e.g. I like chocolate cake because of its sweetness, but I dislike the fact that it has high calories!! indifferent (low positive, low negative) e.g. I don’t care ______ at all** There will be a test question asking about difference between ambivalence and indifferenceFor positive and negative attitude, it does not imply a person’s attitude is purely positive or negative, but rather a general mental stateC. Expression and measurement of attitude- explicit attitude: consciously endorse and easily report- implicit attitude: involuntary and uncontrollable causes: e.g. exposure to negative stereotype which arouses automatic feeling and behaviore.g. classical conditioningThen how should we measure people’s attitude, especially if it isimplicit?!C. Attitude Measurement1) Direct measure - likert scale: measure the extent of agree; degree of agree may be sorted into different categories(i.e. strongly agree/disagree)- semantic differentials: at the end of scale, there are two opposite adjectivese.g. Good Bad1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 102) Indirect measure- nonverbal behavior (e.g. wandering around the room implies anxiety)- physiologyi) EEG (detect activation of brain activity)ii) EMG (detect activation of facial muscles)- implicit measures**i) Implicit Association Test (IAT)- test association with two concepts; have to be done in pairs e.g. the first pair is young/negative; the second pair is old/positive- reaction time reflects implicit attitudee.g. Assume showing a picture of a black and asks the association, if the person is racist, it may take him/her longer time to choose old/positive rather than young/negative pair- Disadv: has to be pair; cannot detect learned association (something that you learn from other people but do not enact)ii) evaluative priming- use reaction time to access situation- if a person reacts faster for positive and slower for negative, it implies that the person’s liking attitudeAdv: flexible stimuli; do not need to be in pairsDisadv: learned

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OSU PSYCH 3325 - Attitude Outline

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