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Sleep/Cardiac RhythmsSleep pattern1-2-3-4-3-2-REMREM latencyTime it takes you to get to REMPathological: depressionREM latency too shortGABA slows down EEGInhibitionSlower REM sleepThalamusREMMost as babyLeast as adultNuclei that control sleepRaphe nucleiSerotoninTurn off during REMTakes you out of REM when it turns back onBrainstemAcetylcholineLive in ponsGenerate PGO wavesREM sleepBeginning partVisual parts of REMEyes movingNorepinephrineWakes you up at end of nightStops us from moving during sleepParalyzes us from neck downREM behavior disorderYields Parkinson’s diseaseDepressionOrexinTakes us in and out of slow wave sleepToo few orexin neuronsYields narcolepsyWhy Sleep?RestCreative illogical thoughtRepairMemoryLucid dreamingAble to control sleepAdenosineLevels increase during sleepATP being used upLose weightMakes us drowsyBlocking acetylcholineCaffeine helps thisMetabolism during dayConsuming foodStoring sugar and fatAt night we release eating hormonesDepressed sleepShort REM latencyWake up too soonWarm up too fast in the morningMetabolic syndromeBroken sleepWaking throughout nightVery little REMVery little deep sleepTired all the timeBad immune systemSleep and sicknessViruses and bacteriaMake us drowsyInflammationMore time spent sleeping = less risk of infectionMore white blood cellsHypothalamusSits in wall of third ventricleRight below thalamusTemperature regulationAnterior: loses heatSenses of heat in anteriorPosterior: creates heatMen normally hotter than womenMore muscleTestosteroneUncouples mitochondriaETCMen waste the energy into heat instead of making ATPMitochondriaMakes fat brownWell vascularizedControls ANSSympathetic NSFight of flightnorepinephrineParasympathetic NSrelaxing, paying attentionacetylcholineslows down heartFluid regulationFluid inside cellsThirstNot enough fluidHypovolemic thirstNeed GatoradeOsmotic thirstCells losing fluidNeed waterLeptinMade by fatTells brain to stop eatingTalks to both cellsTells us to eat more/eat lessMore leptin = eat lessGhrelinMakes us hungryIn the stomachInsulinAbsorbs nutrients in cellsTells brain we already ate and not to continueEat slowlypom C neuronslesionsmake us eat moretheir job is to make us stop eatingOrexinLateral hypothalamusFeeding centerTells us to get foodSignals turning on orexinStressWaking upStimulates dopamineWe like this, do this againCan become addicted to eatingSugar, fatVentral tegmental areaDopamine cellsNorepinephrineBurns fatAgingEatingOxidationWe want antioxidants to protect us from oxygenThanksgivingIngestion analgesiaEndorphinsAllows us to keep eating large amountsAndrogynous Anandamide systemEatingCauses us to eat moreCells making AnandamideFat cellsMake us eat moreDevelopmentNeural tubeWalls of ventricleMatrix cellsCrawl up cells as the developRadial glialTurn into Astrocytes6 layers deepneed room for wiringBigger brainsOur cortex foldsChimps have longer cells sizeCortical thickness changesCan become slightly thickerLarger brainsLive longerSize depends on birth canalWhy gyri form in one placeBigger gyri for bigger functionsMyelinationOligodendrocytes in CNSFrontal and parietal most recently evolvedMen form lastSchwann in PNSRebuild connections in PNSRetrograde degenerationsBoth sides dieCollateral sproutingNeuron nearby will attach to the broken neuronGlutamateKilling cellsKilling connectionsTrans-synaptic degenerationOne neurons dies, neurons it communicates with die tooProgenitor cellsCells have stopped dividingHaven’t decided what they are yet thoughHippocampus continues to make stem cellsDepressionIf we don’t continue to make themAutismLoss of acetylcholineLimbic SystemAmygdalaFearSmellsAmbiguous stimuliNew/unfamiliar thingsProjects out to brainSenses become intenseThalamusHypothalamusHippocampusMammillary bodiesOrbital frontal cortexControls amygdalaRight hemisphere more involvedCingulate gyrusHow much is it?InsulaDisgustJudgment of a sensory inputCan be sight, sound, smellREVIEW 02/25/2014Sleep/Cardiac Rhythms- Sleep patterno 1-2-3-4-3-2-REM- REM latencyo Time it takes you to get to REM Pathological: depression REM latency too short GABA slows down EEG Inhibition Slower REM sleep Thalamus REM Most as baby Least as adult Nuclei that control sleep Raphe nuclei- Serotonino Turn off during REMo Takes you out of REM when it turns back on Brainstem- Acetylcholineo Live in ponso Generate PGO waveso REM sleepo Beginning parto Visual parts of REMo Eyes moving- Norepinephrineo Wakes you up at end of nighto Stops us from moving during sleepo Paralyzes us from neck downo REM behavior disordero Yields Parkinson’s diseaseo Depression- Orexino Takes us in and out of slow wave sleepo Too few orexin neuronso Yields narcolepsy Why Sleep? Rest Creative illogical thought Repair Memory Lucid dreaming Able to control sleep Adenosine Levels increase during sleep ATP being used up- Lose weight Makes us drowsy Blocking acetylcholine- Caffeine helps thiso Metabolism during day Consuming food Storing sugar and fat At night we release eating hormoneso Depressed sleep Short REM latency Wake up too soon Warm up too fast in the morning Metabolic syndrome Broken sleep Waking throughout night Very little REM Very little deep sleep Tired all the time Bad immune systemo Sleep and sickness Viruses and bacteria Make us drowsy Inflammation More time spent sleeping = less risk of infection More white blood cellsHypothalamus- Sits in wall of third ventricle- Right below thalamuso Temperature regulation Anterior: loses heat Senses of heat in anterior Posterior: creates heat Men normally hotter than women- More muscle- Testosteroneo Uncouples mitochondriao ETCo Men waste the energy into heat instead of making ATPo Mitochondria Makes fat brown Well vascularized- Controls ANSo Sympathetic NS Fight of flight norepinephrineo Parasympathetic NS relaxing, paying attention acetylcholine slows down heart- Fluid regulationo Fluid inside cellso Thirst Not enough fluid Hypovolemic thirst- Need Gatorade Osmotic thirst- Cells losing fluido Need water- Leptino Made by fato Tells brain to stop eating Talks to both cells Tells us to eat more/eat less More leptin = eat less- Ghrelino Makes us hungryo In the stomach- Insulino Absorbs nutrients in cellso Tells brain we already ate and not to continue Eat slowly- pom C neuronso lesions make us eat moreo their

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OSU PSYCH 3313 - Sleep/Cardiac Rhythms

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