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Midterm 2 Class Notes Socialization and Gender Identity Parents can be blamed for gender influence o Socialization starts prior to birth and immediately upon birth Genderize immediately Applying labels right away o bouncing baby boy or beautiful baby girl o mothers tend to have higher warmth and responsiveness with girls and more independence with boys o If a girl cries mother babies her If a boy cries mother says you re so tough you can do it etc Girls are fragile and if injured need time out Social interaction Encouraged to be relational and dependent Boys should get right back up Even with homework mom finds girls answers and mom tells boy to keep working Fathers tend to be much more involved with boys than girls and do much more physical activity with them o boys don t play in kitchens girls do if a boy plays in kitchen boys will call him sissy for gender atypical behavior Boys really get punished if they cross gender lines o Girls are able to cross gender boundaries but still receive a Peers little bit of punishment Teachers o Boys get more time and attention than girls do o Boys are more active in the classroom allowed to perform more misbehavior before a consequence than girls This teaches boys to test limits and question their worlds o Girls are more constrained than boys o Teachers help girls more quickly and let boys struggle a little bit longer Overestimate boys abilities in math and science o Both parents and teachers rate boys more positively than girls The Media o Plays a role in promoting gender roles o Superman boy powerpuff and wonderwoman girls Boys have weapons and are fighting They have muscles Girls shapely lighter shades pink and girly backgrounds Active vs passive Very easy to tell girl ads from boy ads Development of Gender and Identity Roles Parallel development of identity and stereotypes developing the whole set of rules Awareness of gender young o 3 years old potty training Gender stability o Recognition of retaining gender for lifetime o By age 4 5 Gender Consistency I am a boy and will be a boy when I grow up o Gender does not change even if appearances do o By age 6 8 o 90 of Halloween costumes are gender Sexual Behaviors in Childhood Child sex play o Kids are curios about their own bodies and other people s o Curious about other children and adults Common Lamb Coakley 1993 o Girls with other girls and boys with other boys more o Dissipates by around first grade o Look at adults if they engaged in sex play o 85 of women in studies sex play as children that involved bodies frequent touching o minority noted cross gender play o common for kids to explore in sex play doctor type play What behaviors are typical atypical o Typical kissing hugging touching looking talking They kiss and hug a lot o Atypical oral sex using objects sexual contact with animals penetration See these things more in an experience where kids experiences sexual not goodness Parent worries about sex play o because boy sex play with another boy gay NOT TRUE o no relationship between gender of child you engage with sex play with as a kid and orientation as an adult o Kids pick kids to engage in sex play with who they have access too and see all the time o Caught kid doing sex play emotional psychological damage But this is actually typical and normative How SHOULD Parents react o They should not freak out o They should react in a calm way and nonjudgemental realize they are curious o They should stop kids and say this is an adult behavior are there questions that I can answer for you about bodies o Worse outcomes in adulthood if parents interact with blame and shame and guilt Poor relationships in marriage When to worry Sexual Behaviors Between Kids Expected o stops when adult intervenes o silly lighthearted spontaneous giggly o no use of coercion if she doesn t want to show and he begs her to show that s coercive Worrisome o doesn t stop gets secretive o anger loneliness shame retaliation o use of persuasion or coercion concerning if somebody with more power is engaging with someone with less power worrisome if there is a difference in size big kid and small kid because it leads to pressure sometimes worrisome if one mentally retarded kid and one non mentally retarded kid different developmental understanding Have They Been Sexually Abused True or false all or at least most sexual abusers have been sexually abused themselves o Research findings physical and sexual abuse 3 important factors o if abused severity age of onset family response maternal response at time of exposure is number one thing o exposure to domestic violence fantastic way to screw up kids often between romantic partners teaches adult relationships are violent and sex comes with violence poor manager of own emotions experiencing feelings of helpless rage anger fear concern o sexual yuck ex someone old saying something really sexually inappropriate to someone young exposure to something sexually rapid ex I wish I could take pictures of you naked youre so homes where child is being inappropriately cute parentized ex single parent now dating confiding in child Adolescent Sexuality physical changes o What is puberty period in time which the body is maturing from a child stage to an adult sexual maturity At the end we would expect the childs body can support conception and birth o Primary vs secondary sexual characteristics Primary directly involved in sexual reproduction Secondary differentiate men from women and aren t directly related to reproduction The growth spurt o girls average of start is 10 Average peak is 12 Average completion of the spurt not done completely is 14 Gain 7 7 inches o Boys average of start is 12 Average peak 14 average completion 16 Gain 8 3 inches o Menarchy chemical message to not produce any new bone cells Changes in body proportions o Prior to puberty kids look like a 1x4 After puberty they no longer do Boys are wedge shaped and girls are hourglass shaped o Men massive growth in muscle mass 150 lean body mass of average female face shoulders o girls get fatty deposits Age 10 6 more body fat than boy By end of puberty 50 more Breasts hips butt thighs o Hair pubus legs underarm facial men chest men Boys facial then chest Don t have full set til 10 years post puberty o Voice change everybody gets a drop in voice Boys is much bigger because it is androgen related and men are exposed to more androgen Men drop a full octave They obtain it by age 15 Mens adams apple pertrudes more Other changes

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OSU PSYCH 2333 - Midterm 2

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