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Chapter 5 Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination Persistence and Change Racism prejudice and discrimination based on racial background or cultural practices that promote the domination of one racial group over another Sexism prejudice and discrimination based on a person s gender or cultural practices that promote the domination of one gender over another Stereotypes are beliefs or associations that link groups of people to certain traits Prejudice is negative feelings towards others because of their connection to a social group Discrimination is negative behavior towards people based on their membership to a group Stereotypes prejudice and discrimination can operate independently but they often influence and reinforce each other A group is more than two people with direct interaction or common attributes or goals Groups we identify with are ingroups and groups other than our own are outgroups Racial prejudice and discrimination have decreased over the last few decades Modern Racism Racial biases seen in umpires when there is the least public outcry accountability Example of modern racism a subtle form of prejudice that surfaces when it is safe socially acceptable or easy to rationalize ex Jokes interracial marriage justice system People are racially ambivalent mixed feelings see themselves as being fair but have feelings of discomfort about other racial groups Aversive racism ambivalence between sincerely fair minded beliefs vs largely unconscious negative beliefs about those of the opposite race Implicit racism racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally skews judgments and beliefs without the person feeling guilty being accidentally racist Tested with IAT Implicit Association Test which measures the extent to which two concepts are associated Interracial divides promoted by lack of contact between those of different ethnic groups and the avoidance of being perceived as racist Allen Hart completed a study showing stronger amygdala activation when participants were shown pictures of racial outgroup members vs ingroup members Elizabeth Phelps found European Americans show greater amygdala activation in response to black faces than with white faces higher levels of implicit prejudice Wendy Mendes showed nonblack participants showed cardiovascular signs of feeling threatened when working with black confederates vs white confederates According to Jacquie Vorauer individuals engaging in intergroup interactions activate metastereotypes or thoughts about the outgroup s stereotypes about them and worry about being seen as consistent with these stereotypes Gender stereotypes are often prescriptive rather than descriptive indicate how people should be Ambivalent sexism is characterized by attitudes about women that reflect negative resentful beliefs and affectionate chivalrous but potentially patronizing beliefs Those from countries with the greatest degree of economic and political inequality between the sexes tend to exhibit the most hostile and benevolent sexism Philip Goldberg showed that in a participant population of women material written by John McKay rather than Joan McKay received higher ratings When men and women have comparable jobs odds are that women will be paid less and confronted with a glass ceiling making it harder to rise to highest positions of power Men with unsuccessful job interviews rated interviewer competency lower if the interviewer was a woman vs a man Intergroup and Motivational Factors Mark Schaller showed when feeling the need for protection we misperceive the emotion of an outgroup member as anger but not an ingroup member Optimal Distinctiveness Theory people try to balance the desire to belong and affiliated with others and the desire to be distinct and differentiated from others identify with small ingroups Terror Management Theory people cope with the fear of their own death by constructing worldviews that help preserve their self esteem Muzafer Sherif s Robbers Cave Study reflection on how situational factors breed prejudices Study of competition and cooperation 2 separate groups of 11 year old middle class white boys with no behavioral problems each formed an alliance were told there was another group Began competitions with them escalated into attacking and viciousness Noncompetitive circumstances did not de escalate the two teams Addition of subordinate goals mutual goals that could be achieved only through cooperating of the two groups finally resolved the conflicts Realistic Conflict Theory view that direct competition for valuable but limited resources breeds hostility between groups Losers feel frustrated and resentful Winners feel threatened and protective Often times competition is perceived and not real People become resentful because of their sense of relative deprivation the belief that they fare poorly compared to others ex Jealous of a higher salary o Egoistic Deprivation concerns for self interests o Fraternal Deprivation concerns for group interests ex Helping out the community even if you are rich Social Identity Theory people favor ingroups over outgroups in order to enhance their self esteem Boys shown dotted slides tried to estimate number of dots Boys separated into two groups over estimators and under estimators actually random Study showed ingroup favoritism or tendency to discriminate in favor of ingroups over outgroups Theory has two components personal identity personal achievements AND social identity based on ingroup status group s achievements We feel like we belong to a group and derive pride boost self esteem but we feel the need to belittle the other groups Two predictions o Threats to one s self esteem heighten the need for ingroup favoritism o Expressions of ingroup favoritism enhances self esteem Fein and Spencer Study o Gave participants positive and negative feedback o Had participants evaluate a job applicant half said she was Jewish and half said she was non Jewish participant population negatively stereotyped Jewish people o Those who got negative feedback rated woman more negatively if told she was Jewish and when given the option to belittle her showed increased self esteem o A blow to one s self image evokes prejudice and expression of prejudice helps restore self image Branscombe and Wann Study o Ingroup members who identified strongly with their group were especially likely to insult outgroups in response to threats of their own ingroup status o Greater ingroup identification has been

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NU PSYC 3402 - Chapter 5: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

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