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Class 13-thinking and intelligence-oct 10- Decision makingo Make irrational decisiono Make decisions without knowing all pros/conso Make decisions quicklyo Two approaches: Algorithms- Step by step procedure that guarantees a correct answer to a problem Heuristics- Mental shortcut or rule of thumb - May pay off with a quick correct answer, but may lead to no answer or an incorrect one- Availability heuristic:o Rule of thumb that the more available an event is in our memory, the more probable it iso When making judgements we tend to rely on info that’s easy to retrieve- Representativeness heuristico Make judgements about categorization based o how well an object resembles that categoryo More rep it is, the more probableo Use bc te mind categorizes info automaticall Good use of limited resourceso Base rates Frequency of an event occurring in world Tend to pay more attention to inso we are given without considering actual base rates- reasoningo deductive from general statement to specific applicationso inductive from specific instances to reach a general conclusion- problem solvingo functional fixedness inability to see that an obj can have a function other than its typical one limits our ability to solve probs that require using an object in a novel way combat functional fixedness, by systematically thinking about the possible noveluses of all the various objects in the problem environmento mental set past exp. With problem solving can lead to mental set tendency to use previously successful solution strategies without considering others are more appropriate for the current problemo satisficers choose an option that suffieicntly satisfies have standards but don’t worry that theres a better choice like good things but don’t worry its not the besto maximizers seek to make the best possible choice often frustrated by multiple options and become paralyzed by choice making the wrong choice can have enormous consequences- intelligenceo “human ability to use knowledge to reason, make decisions, solve problems, understandcomplex ideas, learn quickly, and adapt to environmental challenges”o Achievement Current levels of skill and knowledgeo Aptitude Predicts your future performance What jobs you may be good ato IQ (INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT) Mental age: age your performance most resembles IQ= divide mental age by chronological age x100 Average IQ: 100 Conceptualized differently today- Compared to average adulto Flynn effect For all countries testing IQ, average intelligence scores have increased with eachgeneration Proposed explanations involve many environmental factors such as better nutrition and more education IQ scores are re-normalized periodically, such that the average score is reset to 100o Important issues to consider Validity- Does assessment measure what it claims?o School performanceo Complex careerso Income- But only predicts 25% of variation Cultural biases- Intelligence test may penalize people for belonging to particular culture or group- Western values are considered importanto Quick thinking versus reflection, speaking assertively- Performance measure may be less


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UA CH 101 - Class 13

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