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IS11: Technology InfrastructureChapter 9IT Infrastructure: Shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firm’s specific information system applications- Investment in hardware, software, services (consulting, training, education)- Shared across entire firm/enterprise or departmentsFirm-wide services:- Computing platforms- Telecommunications- Data management- ApplicationsService Platform: analyze the impact of services on your company; how IT adds value to your firm. By analyzing services it is easier to determine the value of investment5 eras of IT Infrastructure evolution:General-purpose mainframe and minicomputer era (1959-present)- Centralized computing under control of programmers and system operators- Most elements provided by a single vendor- Minicomputers: made possible decentralized computing and customized needs ofspecific departments; middle range- Mainframe: support terminals through central mainframe; largest computing unitPersonal Computer Era (1981-present)-IBM PC in 1981 first widely adopted by American businesses-Wintel PC standard desktop PC; windows operating system with intel processoro First DOS operating system, then text-based command language, then Windowso 2012: 90% Windows, 10% Maco Wintel dominance is receding with increasing sales of android and iphoneClient/server Era (1983-present)- Desktop/laptop computers (clients) are networked to servers- Client: user point of entry- Server: processes and stores shared data, serves web pages, manages network activities- Two-tiered client: found in small businesses; processing split between client and server- Multi-tiered(n-tier): network balanced over different levels of servers- Web server: serves a web page to a client in response to a request for service; locates and manages stored web pages- Application server: handles operations between user and organization’s back-end business systems; corporate systems- Enable businesses to distribute computing work across smaller machines- More computing power and applications throughout the firmEnterprise Computing Era (1992-present)-TCP/IP used to connect different networks together creating a centralized database and enterprise-wide network; achieves information flow across departments-Links hardware and smaller networks into enterprise-wide network-Information flows freely across organizationCloud and Mobile Computing Era (2000-present)-Provides access to a shared pool of computing resources over a network (the Internet)-Fastest growing form of computingMoore’s Law:1. Power of microprocessors doubles every 18 months2. Computing power doubles every 18 months3. Price of computing falls by half every 18 monthsLaw of Mass Digital Storage- The amount of digital information is roughly doubling each year- Cost of storing digital information is falling 100%/year; exponentially declinesMetcalfe’s Law and Network Economics- Value or power of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of network members; demand is increasing; more people using it more people want to join (facebook)Declining Communications Costs and the Internet- Decline in costs of communication and exponential growth in size of the Internet- Firms must expand internet connections to take advantage of this valueTechnology standards: specifications that establish the compatibility of products and theability to communicate in a network- Economies of scale/price declines- Without economies of scale, computing of any sort would be far more expensive than what it currently isTable 1-Unix multitasking, multiuser, portable operating system; operates on a wide variety of computers from different manufacturers; most widely used enterprise level operating system-Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)  connects millions ofcomputers in one network (the Internet)Infrastructure Components : 7 components that must be coordinated with one another to provide the firm with a coherent infrastructure; increasingly, vendors have been forced to cooperate in strategic partnerships with one another1. Computer Hardware platforms: Dell, IBM, Sun, HP, Apple, Linuxa. Blade servers: computers consisting of s circuit board with processors, memory, and network connections that are stored in racks; take up less space than traditional servers; provide secondary storageb. Chip producers: Intel, AMD, IBM the industry has collectively settled on Intel as the standard processor for business computing with majorexceptions in the server market for Unix and Linux who might use IBM orSunc. Mainframes continue to be used to reliably and securely handle large data;still the digital workhorse for banking and telecommunications networksi. IBM2. Operating System Platforms: Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Mac OS X, Chrome, Android, iOSa. Manages the resources and activities of a computerb. Clients 95% run on windows; server 85% run on Unix or Linuxc. Unixoperating system for all types of computers; machine independent; used in high end work stations and serversd. Linux reliable and compactly designed; can run on many different hardware platforms; free/low cost; used as an alternative to Unix or Windows NTe. Chrome OS lightweight operating system for cloud computing using netbooksf. Android open source operating system for mobile devicesg. iOS features multi-touch interfaceh. Windows 8 runs on tablets and PCs; has an interface optimized for touch but also works with a mouse and keyboard3. Enterprise Software Applications: SAP, Oracle, Microsoft, IBMa. Middle-ware by IBM/Oracle to achieve firm wide integration4. Data Management and Storage: IBM DB2, Oracle, SQL Server, Sybase, MySQL,EMC, Apache, Hadoopa. Responsible for organizing and managing the firm’s data b. MySQL Linux open source relational databasec. Apache Hadoopan open source softwared. EMC data storage for large-scale systemse. Storage area networks (SANs) connect multiple storage devices on separate high-speed network dedicated to storage; creates a large central pool of storage that can be rapidly accessed and shared by multiple servers5. Networking/Telecommunications Platforms: Linux, Novell, Cisco, Alcatel-Lucent, Nortel, AT&T, Verizona. offer voice and data connectivity, wide area networking, wireless services,Internet accessb. Windows Server predominantly used as a local area network operating system, followed by Linux and Unix6. Internet Platforms: Apache, Microsoft IIS, .NET, Unix,


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BU SMG IS 323 - Technology Infrastructure

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