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UT Arlington BIOL 2457 - CNS Functions and Structures

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Ashley GuinnBiol 2457-500CNS Functions and StructuresStructure Characteristics/ Location Function What happens when damaged?CerebralHemispheres Two halves of the brainVentriclesHollow chambers filled with CSFand lined with ependymal cellsProduce, house, transport, and remove CSFthroughout CNSHydrocephalus for example: loss ofmemory, thinking and reasoningskills impaired, motor difficulty, poorbalanceCerebral cortexMade up of primarily gray matter;outermost layer of the brain withthe sulci and gyri“Executive suite,” where our consciousness islocated; awareness, processing of sensations,communication, memory, and involuntarymovementsCognitive, sensory, motor, andemotional controlPrimary motor cortexIn precentral gyrus, containpyramidal cells, and corticospinaltracts that project to the spinalcordControl of precise/skilled voluntary movements ofskeletal systemPoor coordination and dexterity-loss of fine motor skillsPremotor cortex Posterior to precentral gyrus, Staging area for skilled motor movements,coordinates muscle groupsCauses apraxia, deficits in collateralfine motor control, difficulty usingsensory feedbackBroca’s area Posterior to prefrontal cortexDirects muscles involved in speech production,and thought processing of voluntary movement Impairment of speech productionFrontal eye fieldPartially in and anterior topremotor cortex, superior toBroca’s area Controls voluntary movements of eyesDamage is usually temporary andimpacts smooth, tracking eyemovementsPrimarySomatosensoryLocated in postcentral gyrus ofparietal lobeControls spacial discrimination, integrates sensoryinputDefective localization, loss ofproprioception, tactile agnosia,cortex andassociation numbness of hands and facePrimary visual cortexand associationExtreme posterior tip of occipitallobe, buried deep in calcarinesulcus, primary cortex is largestcortical sensory areaReceives and maps visual information, interpretspast visual memory to create recall andrecognitionLoss of visual perception- blindness(because of disconnect betweenprocessing centers and eyes, notbecause of damage to eyes ornerves)Primary auditorycomplex andassociationSuperior margin of temporal lobe,next to lateral sulcus Reception and perception of sound inputInability to perceive and processsound inputWernicke’s areaPosterior to the primary auditorycomplex Language comprehension, and speech production Aphasia Vestibular Cortex Posterior part of insula Controls conscious awareness of balanceInability to regulate and controlbalance- dizziness, decreasedbalance, vertigo, vision changesPrimary OlfactoryCortexMedial aspect of temporal lobe inpiriform lobeReceives olfactory signals, conscious awareness ofodors Inability to smell and tasteGustatory cortex Insula, deep to temporal lobe Perceives taste stimuli Loss of perception of tasteVisceral sensory area Posterior to gustatory cortexInvolved in conscious perception of visceralsensationsInability to perceive visceralsensations like upset stomach or fullbladderPrefrontal cortex Most complicated cortical regionInvolved in intellect, cognition, recall, personality,working memoryChanges in emotional control,amnesia, impulse inhibition, inabilityto plan long-termPosterior associationareaEncompasses parts of temporal,parietal, and occipital lobesInvolved in pattern and face recognition, orientingself in space, binding sensory inputs to formcoherent wholeImpairment in recognizing familiarfaces or learning new onesLimbic associationareaIn cingulate gyrus,parahippocampal gyrus, andhippocampusEmotional impact (like interpreting “danger”),establishes memoryHormonal system imbalances,changes in feelings of satiety andemotional reactionsBasal gangliaIn cerebral white matter of eachhemisphere Control of movementProblems controlling speech,movement and postureDiencephalon Forms central core of forebrainthalamusBilateral egg-shaped nuclei, formsuperolateral walls of the thirdventricle Relay station for info coming into cerebral cortexSensory changes in body, movementdisordershypothalamusCap of the brainstem, inferolateralwalls of the third ventricleMain visceral control center of body, vital tohomeostasis, Types of diabetes, insomnia,homeostasis disruptions, obesityand other eating disordersepithalamus Forms roof of the third ventricle Connects limbic system to other parts of body Mood and sleep disordersPineal gland Posterior border of epithalamusSecretes melatonin and helps control the sleep-wake cycles Hormone imbalance, sleep disordersBrain StemAccounts for 2.5% of total brainmassProvides pathway for fiber tracts running betweenhigher and lower neural centers MidbrainBetween the diencephalon andpons, several peduncles and otherstructures that hold it in placePain suppression, fear perception, control offlight-or-fight response, cranial nerve control,visual and auditory processingMovement disorders, problems withvision and hearing, trouble withmemory, disruption of autonomicbody functionsPonsBulging portion of brainstembetween midbrain and medullaoblongata, mostly composed ofconduction tractsCommunication between higher brain and spinalcord, relay between motor cortex and cerebellumLoss of all muscle function apartfrom the eyesMedulla oblongata Most inferior portion of midbrainCardiovascular center, respiratory center,regulation of activities such as vomiting,hiccuping, swallowing, coughing, and sneezing Loss of sensation, paralysis,cardiovascular or respiratory failureCerebellumCauliflower-like, accounts for 11%of total brain mass, located dorsalto pons and medulla, protrudesunder occipital lobesProcessing input received from cerebral motorcomplex; provides precise timing and contractionpatterns of muscle groups, coordination andagility (subconscious)Loss of coordination and motorfunction, loss of depth perception,changes in gait and balance, weakmuscle tone, slurred speechCerebellar peduncles Paired fiber tracts, connect Carry instructions from neurons in cerebellar Vertigo, vomiting, facial paralysis,(superior, middle,inferior) cerebellum to brain stemnuclei to cerebral motor cortex, carry one-waycommunication from the pons to cerebellum(voluntary motor activities), convey sensoryinformation from cerebellum to muscleproprioceptors and vestibular nuclei of brainstemdeafness, motor weakness, sensoryloss, ataxia, problems with vision,problems swallowing, motor

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