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UNT BIOL 2140 - BIOL 2140 Exam 1 Study guide

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BIOL 2140 Summer 2021 Exam 1 – Study guide Chapter 1 – Ecology, Evolution and the Scientific Method Terms science Ecology individual species populations geographic range abundance density change in size composition community relative abundance ecosystem biosphere first law of thermodynamics dynamic steady state phenotype genotype evolution natural selection fitness prokaryotes mitochondria protists plants fungi hyphae animals producers consumers mixotrophs scavengers detritivores decomposers predation parasitism herbivory competition mutualism commensalism symbiosis habitat niche hypothesis proximate hypothesis ultimate hypothesis predictions manipulative experiment treatment control experimental unit replication randomization natural experiments mathematical models Practice 1. What is Ecology? 2. Who was the first to use the term Ecology? 3. List and describe each ecological system. 4. What are the five distinct properties of a population? Describe each one. 5. What is natural selection? What are the requirements? 6. List and describe the different ways organisms obtain energy. 7. What are the different types of interactions species have with other species? 8. What is symbiosis? 9. What are the different perspectives on niche discussed in class? 10. What are the main steps of the scientific method? What is a hypothesis?Chapter 2 – Adaptations to Aquatic Environments Terms high specific heat density gas-filled bladders oil droplets viscosity streamlined bodies appendages hydrogen bonds saturation acidity pH acid deposition acid rain solutes semipermeable membrane osmosis osmotic potential osmoregulation hyperosmotic hyposmotic urea TMAO (trimethylamine oxide) CO2 bicarbonate diffusion boundary layer O2 countercurrent circulation anoxic anaerobic thermophilic glycerol glycoproteins supercooling thermal optima isozymes Practice 1. What are the adaptation to water density and viscosity discussed in class? 2. How do human activities can lead to acid deposition or acid rain? 3. How do marine and freshwater fish balance the water gain and loss? How do they maintain a proper solute concentration? 4. What is the adaptation found in sharks and rays that raises osmotic potential of their blood and balances water movement? 5. How do plants (e.g. mangroves) balance salt concentration? 6. What else can be used for photosynthesis by many aquatic plants in place of CO2? 7. Describe the countercurrent exchange in gills. 8. List the adaptations discussed in class to low O2 concentration. 9. How do many organisms cope with freezing temperatures? 10. What are isozymes? In what conditions would they be useful?Chapter 3 – Adaptations to Terrestrial Environments Terms water potential matric (matrix) potential field capacity wilting point sand silt clay loam soils salinization cohesion tension root pressure transpiration adhesion stomata chloroplast chlorophyll photosynthesis light reactions Calvin cycle C3 photosynthesis RuBP (ribulose biphosphate) Rubisco (RuBP carboxylase oxidase) mesophyll photorespiration C4 photosynthesis PEP (phosphoenol pyruvate) OAA (oxaloacetic acid) malic acid bundle sheath cells CAM photosynthesis homeostasis negative feedback hypothalamus nasal salt glands loop of Henle nitrogenous waste urea uric acid radiation convection conduction evaporation thermoregulation homeotherm poikilotherm ectotherm endotherm panting blood shutting sweating Practice 1. Explain how the physical structure of the soil influences the amount of water and its availability to plants. 2. What are the soils with the lowest/highest field capacity and wilting points? What are loam soils? 3. How does water get from the roots to leaves? 4. What is the main organelle involved in photosynthesis? 5. Compare/contrast the different photosynthetic pathways. What are the advantages and disadvantages of these pathways? 6. What are the morphological modifications discussed in class seem in plants that are heat and drought adapted? 7. What is homeostasis? 8. How do terrestrial animals conserve water and balance salts? 9. List and describe the different processes of heat exchange. 10. Define and give examples of homeotherms, poikilotherms, ectotherms, and endotherms.Chapter 4 – Adaptations to Variable Environments Terms temporal variation predictable unpredictable weather climate spatial variation large-scale heterogeneity small-scale heterogeneity phenotype genes environment phenotypic trade-off phenotypic plasticity migration storage dormancy diapause hibernation torpor aestivation foraging central place foraging optimal foraging theory benefits curve traveling time searching time optimal rate of prey capture risk-sensitive foraging optimal diet composition handling time diet mixing Practice 1. What is an important distinction between weather and climate? 2. What type of environment favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity? 3. What would be phenotypically plastic traits that typically respond most rapidly and the one that typically respond least rapidly? 4. Why can migration be considered a phenotypically plastic behavior? 5. What type of behavior is optimal for an organism using central place forging? 6. Define optimal foraging theory. 7. Explain how foraging behavior is a type of adaptive phenotypic plasticity. 8. What type of dormancy is commonly used in the summer? 9. Explain the differences and similarities between storage and dormancy as adaptive strategies, and provide an example.Chapter 7 – Evolution through Random Processes and Selection Terms genetic variation mutation gene flow genetic drift bottleneck effect founder effect natural selection fitness industrial melanism directional selection disruptive selection stabilizing selection Practice 1. What is a mutation? 2. What is the process that occurs when genetic variation is lost because of random variation in mating, mortality, fecundity, and inheritance? 3. What is the main property of a population that influences the rate at which allele frequencies change because of genetic drift? 4. Describe bottleneck and founder effect. 5. When a parental generation undergoes stabilizing selection, how will the distribution of phenotypes in the population change between the parental generation and their progeny? 6. When an extreme phenotype has higher fitness than an average phenotype in a population, it is an example of what type of selection? 7. When a phenotype is under disruptive selection, which parts of the

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