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CSI PSY 202 - Psychopathology Chap 1

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Psychopathology Chap 1:● Etiology: causes of disorders- Most contemporary explanations of mental disorders fall into 4 categories: (1) biologicalviews, including genetics and other physiological explanations; (2) psychological issues,rooted in invisible complexities of the human mind; (3) dysfunctional social relationships,including stressful interactions with family members and peers; and (4) socioculturalinfluences, including the effects of discrimination and stressors related to race, genderand socioeconomic status.- Model: describes or attempts to explain a phenomenon or process that we cannotdirectly observe● Multipath Model: a model that provides an organizational framework for understandingthe numerous influences on the development of mental disorders, the complexity of theirinteracting components, and the need to view disorders from a holistic framework.● The multipath model operates under several assumptions:- No one theoretical perspective is adequate to explain the complexity of the humancondition and the development of mental disorders.- There are multiple pathways and influences on the development of any single disorder.Explanations of abnormal behavior must consider biological, psychological, social andsociocultural factors.- Not all dimensions contribute equally to a single disorder.- The multipath model is integrative and interactive. It acknowledges that factors maycombine in complex and reciprocal ways so that people exposed to the same influencesmay not develop the same disorder and that different individuals exposed to differentfacts may develop similar mental disorders.- The biological and psychological strengths and assets of a person and positive aspectsof the person’s social and sociocultural environment can help protect againstpsychopathology, minimize symptoms, or facilitate recovery from mental illness.● Dimension 1: Biological Factors: genetics, brain anatomy and physiology, centralnervous system functioning, autonomic nervous system reactivity● Dimension 2: Psychological Factors: personality, emotions, learning, coping skills,values● Dimension 3: Social Factors: family and other interpersonal relationships, socialsupport, community connections● Dimension 4: Sociocultural Factors: race, gender, secual orientation, spirituality orreligion, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture● Impulsivity: a tendency to act quickly without careful thought● Protective Factors: conditions or attributes that lessen or eliminate the risk of anegative psychological or social outcome● Resilience: our ability to recover from stressful or challenging circumstances- Maintaining emotional equilibrium- Coping with stress and hardships- Facing adversity with strength- Recovering from trauma● Biological Dimension:- Reduced genetic vulnerability to stress- Maintain physical fitness- Consume a healthy diet- Moderate alcohol consumption- Avoid cigarettes and other harmful substances- Minimize exposure to environmental toxins- Maintain physical safety● Psychological Dimension:- Positive outlook- Gratitude- Coping and problem-solving skills- Mindfulness- Cognitive flexibility- Emotional regulation- Meaning and purpose in life- Perceived personal control● Social Dimension:- Social support- Connection with significant others- Meaningful social relations- Ability to seek help from others- Sense of belonging- Community involvement- Understanding the power of media messages● Sociocultural Dimension:- Supportive social institutions- Safe and caring communities- Spirituality and religion- Cultural group identification- Gender and racial/ethnic equality- Cultural integration● Modern biological explanations of normal and abnormal behaviors share certainassumptions:1. Characteristics that make us who we are: our physical features, susceptibility toillness and physiological response to stress - are embedded in the genetic material ofour cells.2. Thoughts, emotions, and behaviors involve physiological activity occurring within thebrain; changes in the way we think, feel or behave affect these biological processes and,over time, can change brain structure.3. Many mental disorders are associated with inherited biological vulnerability and/orsome form of brain abnormality.4. Medications and other biological interventions used to treat mental disordersinfluence various physiological processes within the brain● The brain coordinates a variety of highly complex functions: (1) regulating activitiesnecessary for our survival (such as breathing and heartbeat); (2) receiving andinterpreting sensory information (from both inside and outside our bodies); (3)transmitting information to our muscles and other organs; and (4) coordinating ourresponses to incoming stimuli.- The Forebrain: responsible for higher-level mental processes- The Midbrain: involved with basic functions such as hearing and vision, motormovement alertness and sleep/wake cycles, and temperature regulation- The Hindbrain: the most primitive brain region; designed for self-preservation andsurvival; responsible for instinctive behavior, balance, and equilibrium, and basic bodilyfunctions such as heartbeat, respiration and digestion- Cerebral Cortex: the outermost layers of brain tissue; covers the cerebrum- Neurons: a nerve cell that transmits messages throughout the body- Prefrontal Cortex: the outer layer of prefrontal lobe responsible for inhibiting instinctiveresponses and performing complex cognitive behavior such as managing attention,behavior and emotions- Executive Functioning: helps us manage our attention, behavior and emotions so thatwe reach short-term and long-term goals- Limbic System: a group of deep brain structures associated with emotions decisionmaking and the formation of memories- Amygdala: plays in the limbic system is to facilitate recall of our emotional memoriesand our response to potential threat- Hippocampus: helps us form, organize and store memory● Emotional responses originating in the limbic system directly affect the autonomicnervous system (ANS).- The ANS regulates automatic physical responses associated with emotional reactions,most notably the “fight or flight” response (increased blood flow and heart rate thatprepare us to respond to threat) that occurs when we perceive a situation as threatening● The hypothalamus, a structure that regulates bodily drives, such as hunger, thirst, andsexual response, and body conditions, such as body temperature and circadian

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