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Chapter 16

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1. “A sacrament is a sign of divine things.” Why was this early definition eventually realized to be inadequate?Not every sacred thing is a sacrament. 2. Name the seven sacraments recognized by the medieval church.Baptism, confirmation, the Eucharist, penance, marriage, ordination, and extreme unction. 3. Identify the criteria used by the reformers to reduce the number of the sacraments from seven to two.Luther explained that in baptism and the eucharist do we find the divinely instituted sign and the promise of the forgiveness of sins. Luther also claimed that the two characteristics of a sacrament were: the Word of God and an outward sacramental sign. 4. On what grounds did Zwingli reject the idea of a “real presence” of Christ in the Eucharist?The Eucharist, according to Zwingli, is a “memorial of the suffering of Christ, and not a sacrifice.”So, he exclaimed that the words, “this is my body” can’t be taken literally, which eliminates the idea of the “real presence of Christ” at the Eucharist. 5. In what ways does the concept of “transignification” relate to “transubstantiation?” Can the former be maintained without the latter?Transignification is a theory in which the bread and wine change their significance because of their location within the eucharist liturgy. Meaning that Christ is sacramentally present, but not physically present in the bread and the wine. The bread and the wine then become reminders ofChrist in his absence and a central focus for the church, that the Lord will one-day return. 6. Give a brief summary of the main arguments for and against the baptism of infants. Does it make any difference to the infant concerned?Infants should be baptized because it gets rid of the original sin and gives them the grace they need. However, Baptist churches in England, argued that one was only to be baptized when one showed grace, repentance, or faith. So, there is no warrant for infant baptism in the bible. Baptism is also symbolic and cannot be understood by the infant who is being


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