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Chapter 14

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1. Give a concise summary of the main issues at stake in the Pelagian controversy. The main issues in the Pelagian controversy include: “freedom of the will,” the nature of sin, the nature of grace, and the basis of salvation.2. Why did Augustine believe in original sin?Augustine provides three points as to why he believes in original sin, those three points are as follow: disease, power, and guilt. He said that sin is like a disease because it is passed down from one generation to the next. Therefore, humanity cannot be cured from original sin. Sin is also like power because it holds humanity captive and are then unable to break free. Sin is also guilt which is also passed down from one generation to another. 3. Imagine that you are explaining the idea of “grace” to a non-theologian with a limited attention span. What could you say about the idea in 200 words or fewer? Grace is the “free gift” from God that allows us to heal and reach heaven. 4. Martin Luther is associated with the doctrine of “justification by faith alone.” What did he mean by this? And what were the alternatives he rejected?Luther means that God provides everything that is needed for justification, so all the sinner must do is receive it. Also, that the individual sinner is incapable of self-justification. He rejected the alternative that the righteousness of sinners are justified is not their own righteousness, but a righteousness that is given to them by God. 5. “If you aren’t predestined, then go and get yourself predestined.” How does this Calvinistattitude relate to Weber’s thesis concerning the origins of capitalism? Weber put stress on the notion of “calling” which he linked to the idea of predestination. Most Calvinist could engage in world activities without anxiety because they regarded their salvation so much. 6. Why was Darwinism such a powerful challenge to traditional Christian belief? And how has Christian theology responded to this challenge?Darwinism challenged the idea that humanity emerged over time instead of being created by God. In response Christianity argued with the young-earth creationism, the old-earth creationism, intelligent design, and the evolutionary theism. These disprove that humanity has evolved without God’s

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