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Chapter 8

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1. Why did Tertullian want theologians to have nothing to do with philosophy? Was he right? Tertullian thought that Christian theologians had a completely different outlook on the world than pagan counterparts. No, because philosophers and theologians answer the same questions, but in different ways from different resources. 2. How do you evaluate Anselm of Canterbury’s reflections on the rationality of faith? Do you thinkGaunilo of Marmoutiers is right in his criticism of this approach? Anslem of Canterbury’s reflection on the rationality of faith can be seen as true, it all depends on where you stand on the situation. In his argument he stated that once one understands that God exists than he must. For examples if someone believes in God than he exists, but if someone does not believe in God than he does not exist. I do not think that Gauniloof Marmoutiers was right in his criticism because he said, “The fool says in his hear that there is no God.” He missed the part where Canterbury stated that God’s existence is a personal idea. 3. The cosmological argument has come to have new importance as a result of the growing interest in the advances in astronomy and physics. How would you evaluate the potential of this argument in modern debates over the existence of God?The cosmological argument explains that everything exists because it has a cause, but it must have a first cause. So, the universe exists because the universe has a cause of existence. Debates over God’s existence is similar because for the universe to exist it had to have a cause and that cause was God. 4. Give an account of William Paley’s analogy of the watch. What points did he hope to make in this way? Why has the analogy been criticized since his time? He was hoping to make the point that a watch is a complex object created by a watch-maker and the universe is also complex created by the universe-maker. Hume criticized his analogy because he pointed out that to make an analogy we need to have an understanding about the two things being compared. Since we only know a little bit of information about the universe and understand how a watch is manufactured the analogy cannot be made.5. How would you distinguish between an analogy and a metaphor? An analogy is comparing two things for explanation. A metaphor is when you use a wordor phrase and apply it to an action or object to create a strong effect that is not literally possible.6. What theological issues do you think were at stake in the Copernican debate? For one Copernicus did not believe what the Bible said about the sun and every other planet revolves around earth. His theory about all the planets revolving around the sun, caused other scientists to believe the same thing because they understood where he was coming from with the

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