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Chapter 4

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1. What were the main features of the Enlightenment? An emphasis upon human reason and anti-rational movements started. 2. Which areas of Christian theology were especially affected by the ideas of the Enlightenment? Why? a. The concept of revelation, because they wanted to increase the critical attitude to the idea of supernatural revelation. They felt that everyone had access to reason, but only some had access to revelation. b. The status and interpretation of the Bible, German theologians argued that the Bible was a work by many hands and that it was open to textual analysis and interpretation as any other piece of literature. c. The identity and significance of Jesus Christ, there was a discrepancy between theinterpretation of his significance in the real Jesus of history and the New Testament. d. The doctrine of the Trinity, because they wondered how someone could accept this rational mathematical nonsense. e. The critique of miracles, Hume and Diderot said that there is no possible way that someone can be resurrected. f. The rejection of original sin, the French criticized the doctrine because it encouraged pessimism regarding human abilities, which impedes human social and political development. g. The problem of evil, recognizing the existence of evil was a challenge to the credibility and coherence of Christian faith. 3. Summarize some of the features of the following movements: liberal Protestantism, neo-orthodoxy, liberation theology. a. Liberal Protestantism tried to fix the gap between Christian faith and modern doctrine. They believed some of the Christian customs were outdated and should be abandoned and others should reinterpret for the spirit of the age.b. Neo-orthodoxy, reduced Christianity to no more than a spiritual experience that made Christianity man-centered instead of God-centered.c. Liberation theology was oriented toward the poor and oppressed that involved critical reflection on the practice. It also is intensely critical of capitalism and affirmative of socialism. When they read scripture the emphasis is put on the liberation of Israel from Egyptian bondage and Jesus gospel to the poor. It has also tended to connect salvation with liberation, and stressed the social, political, and economic aspects of salvation. 4. With which theological movements would you associate the following individuals: Karl Barth, Leonardo Boff, James Hal Cone, Stanly Hauerwas, Rosemary Radford Ruether, F.D.E. Schleiermacher? a. Karl Barth: Neo-Orthodoxyb. Leonardo Boff: Liberation Theologyc. James Hal Cone: Black Theologyd. Stanly Hauerwas: Post-Lliberalisme. Rosemary Radford Ruether: Feminismf. F.D.E. Schleiermacher: Romanticisim5. Many recent theological movements represent “theologies of retrieval.” Why has there been such interest in recovering older ideas in the present? This involves reading theological texts very closely to understand the contemporary issues to help better understand concepts and apply them to today’s

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