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UB MGB 301 - Motivation Concepts

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Slide 1After studying this chapter you should be able to:What Is Motivation?Early Theories of MotivationHierarchy of Needs TheoryTheory X and Theory YTwo-Factor TheoryMcClelland's Theory of NeedsMcClelland's High AchieversContemporary Theories of MotivationSelf-Determination TheoryGoal-Setting TheoryManagement by ObjectivesOther Contemporary Theories of MotivationSelf-Efficacy TheorySelf-Efficacy TheoryEquity TheoryEquity TheoryExpectancy TheoryExpectancy TheoryJob EngagementImplications for ManagersKeep in Mind…SummaryChapter 7 Motivation ConceptsCopyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. After studying this chapter you should be able to:1. Describe the three key elements of motivation.2. Evaluate the applicability of early theories of motivation.3. Contrast the elements of self-determination theory and goal-setting theory.4. Demonstrate the differences between self-efficacy theory, equity theory, and expectancy theory.5. Identify the implications of employee job engagement for management.7-2Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Motivation? •Motivation: The processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining an organizational goalIntensity: the amount of effort put forth to meet the goalDirection: efforts are channeled toward organizational goalsPersistence: how long the effort is maintained 7-3Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Early Theories of Motivation•Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory•McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y•Herzberg’s Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory•McClellan’s Theory of Needs (Three Needs Theory)7-4Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Hierarchy of Needs Theory7-5Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Theory X and Theory Y•Inherent dislike for work and will attempt to avoid it•Must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment•View work as being as natural as rest or play•Will exercise self-direction and self-control if committed to objectives7-6Theory XTheory XTheory YTheory YCopyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Two-Factor Theory7-7•Quality of supervision•Pay•Company policies•Physical working conditions•Relationships•Job security•Quality of supervision•Pay•Company policies•Physical working conditions•Relationships•Job securityHygiene FactorsHygiene FactorsDissatisfiedNot Dissatisfied•Promotional opportunities•Opportunities for personal growth•Recognition•Responsibility•Achievement•Promotional opportunities•Opportunities for personal growth•Recognition•Responsibility•AchievementMotivation FactorsMotivation FactorsSatisfiedNot SatisfiedCopyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. McClelland's Theory of Needs •Need for Achievement (nAch) The drive to excel •Need for Power (nPow)The need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise•Need for Affiliation (nAff) The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships 7-8Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. McClelland's High Achievers•High achievers prefer jobs with:Personal responsibilityFeedback Intermediate degree of risk (50/50)•High achievers are not necessarily good managers•High nPow and low nAff is related to managerial success7-9Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Contemporary Theories of Motivation•Self-Determination Theory•Goal-Setting TheoryManagement by Objectives7-10Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Self-Determination Theory•Self-determination theory: People prefer to have control over their actions so when they feel they are forced to do something they previously enjoyed, motivation will decreaseCognitive evaluation theory: Proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for work (pay) that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivationSelf-concordance: considers how strongly people’s reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values7-11Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Goal-Setting Theory•Goals increase performance when goals are:SpecificDifficult, but accepted by employeesAccompanied by feedback: self-generated feedback is best•Contingencies in goal-setting theoryGoal commitment: public goals betterTask characteristics: simple & familiar betterNational culture: Western culture suits best7-12Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Management by Objectives•Management by objectives (MBO): Converts overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals•Common ingredients:Goal specificityExplicit time periodPerformance feedbackParticipation in decision making7-13Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation•Self-Efficacy Theory•Equity TheoryOrganizational Justice•Expectancy Theory7-14Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Self-Efficacy Theory•Self-efficacy theory: An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a taskAlso known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory•Self-efficacy increased by:1. Enactive mastery: gain experience2. Vicarious modeling: see someone else do the task3. Verbal persuasion: someone convinces you that you have the skills4. Arousal: get energized7-15Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Self-Efficacy Theory7-16Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Equity Theory•Equity theory: Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome)They compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others7-17Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Equity Theory•Equity theory suggests employees who perceive inequity will make one of six choices: 1. Change inputs2. Change outcomes3. Distort perceptions of self4. Distort perceptions of others5. Choose a different referent6. Leave the field7-18Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Expectancy Theory•Three key relationships:1. Effort-performance: perceived probability that exerting effort leads to successful performance2. Performance-reward: the belief that successful performance leads to desired outcome3. Rewards-personal goals: the attractiveness of organizational outcome (reward) to the individual7-19Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Expectancy Theory7-20Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Job Engagement•Job Engagement: The investment of an employee’s


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