New version page

UB MGB 301 - Motivation Concepts

Documents in this Course
Load more
Upgrade to remove ads
Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Slide 1After studying this chapter you should be able to:What Is Motivation?Early Theories of MotivationHierarchy of Needs TheoryTheory X and Theory YTwo-Factor TheoryMcClelland's Theory of NeedsMcClelland's High AchieversContemporary Theories of MotivationSelf-Determination TheoryGoal-Setting TheoryManagement by ObjectivesOther Contemporary Theories of MotivationSelf-Efficacy TheorySelf-Efficacy TheoryEquity TheoryEquity TheoryExpectancy TheoryExpectancy TheoryJob EngagementImplications for ManagersKeep in Mind…SummaryChapter 7 Motivation ConceptsCopyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. After studying this chapter you should be able to:1. Describe the three key elements of motivation.2. Evaluate the applicability of early theories of motivation.3. Contrast the elements of self-determination theory and goal-setting theory.4. Demonstrate the differences between self-efficacy theory, equity theory, and expectancy theory.5. Identify the implications of employee job engagement for management.7-2Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. What Is Motivation? •Motivation: The processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining an organizational goalIntensity: the amount of effort put forth to meet the goalDirection: efforts are channeled toward organizational goalsPersistence: how long the effort is maintained 7-3Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Early Theories of Motivation•Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory•McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y•Herzberg’s Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory•McClellan’s Theory of Needs (Three Needs Theory)7-4Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Hierarchy of Needs Theory7-5Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Theory X and Theory Y•Inherent dislike for work and will attempt to avoid it•Must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment•View work as being as natural as rest or play•Will exercise self-direction and self-control if committed to objectives7-6Theory XTheory XTheory YTheory YCopyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Two-Factor Theory7-7•Quality of supervision•Pay•Company policies•Physical working conditions•Relationships•Job security•Quality of supervision•Pay•Company policies•Physical working conditions•Relationships•Job securityHygiene FactorsHygiene FactorsDissatisfiedNot Dissatisfied•Promotional opportunities•Opportunities for personal growth•Recognition•Responsibility•Achievement•Promotional opportunities•Opportunities for personal growth•Recognition•Responsibility•AchievementMotivation FactorsMotivation FactorsSatisfiedNot SatisfiedCopyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. McClelland's Theory of Needs •Need for Achievement (nAch) The drive to excel •Need for Power (nPow)The need to make others behave in a way they would not have behaved otherwise•Need for Affiliation (nAff) The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships 7-8Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. McClelland's High Achievers•High achievers prefer jobs with:Personal responsibilityFeedback Intermediate degree of risk (50/50)•High achievers are not necessarily good managers•High nPow and low nAff is related to managerial success7-9Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Contemporary Theories of Motivation•Self-Determination Theory•Goal-Setting TheoryManagement by Objectives7-10Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Self-Determination Theory•Self-determination theory: People prefer to have control over their actions so when they feel they are forced to do something they previously enjoyed, motivation will decreaseCognitive evaluation theory: Proposes that the introduction of extrinsic rewards for work (pay) that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivationSelf-concordance: considers how strongly people’s reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values7-11Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Goal-Setting Theory•Goals increase performance when goals are:SpecificDifficult, but accepted by employeesAccompanied by feedback: self-generated feedback is best•Contingencies in goal-setting theoryGoal commitment: public goals betterTask characteristics: simple & familiar betterNational culture: Western culture suits best7-12Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Management by Objectives•Management by objectives (MBO): Converts overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for work units and individuals•Common ingredients:Goal specificityExplicit time periodPerformance feedbackParticipation in decision making7-13Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Other Contemporary Theories of Motivation•Self-Efficacy Theory•Equity TheoryOrganizational Justice•Expectancy Theory7-14Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Self-Efficacy Theory•Self-efficacy theory: An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a taskAlso known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory•Self-efficacy increased by:1. Enactive mastery: gain experience2. Vicarious modeling: see someone else do the task3. Verbal persuasion: someone convinces you that you have the skills4. Arousal: get energized7-15Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Self-Efficacy Theory7-16Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Equity Theory•Equity theory: Employees weigh what they put into a job situation (input) against what they get from it (outcome)They compare their input-outcome ratio with the input-outcome ratio of relevant others7-17Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Equity Theory•Equity theory suggests employees who perceive inequity will make one of six choices: 1. Change inputs2. Change outcomes3. Distort perceptions of self4. Distort perceptions of others5. Choose a different referent6. Leave the field7-18Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Expectancy Theory•Three key relationships:1. Effort-performance: perceived probability that exerting effort leads to successful performance2. Performance-reward: the belief that successful performance leads to desired outcome3. Rewards-personal goals: the attractiveness of organizational outcome (reward) to the individual7-19Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Expectancy Theory7-20Copyright ©2016 Pearson Education, Inc. Job Engagement•Job Engagement: The investment of an employee’s

View Full Document
Download Motivation Concepts
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Motivation Concepts and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Motivation Concepts 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?