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UB ES 200 - ES 200 Final review

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ES 200 Final review- Clinical biomechanics is injury prevention and rehab allowing everyday things- Sports biomechanics is enhancing performance- Ergonomics is study of ppl in working env; want to get them back to everyday regular- Gait is walking ppl w osteoarthritis have increased knee adduction, decreased knee flexion angle and movement and slower velocity- Linear motion: rectilinear: same direction and distance; straight line eg. Downhill skiing curvilinear: same direction and distance but curved path; arm motion when jogging- Rotation: motion of body arnd fixed joing; gymnast swinging around bar- Dorsiflexion: foot move up plantar flexion: foot down- Radial deviation is pinky side of hand moving out ulnar is thumb side of hand moving out- Inversion: foot in eversion: foot out- External rotation 90 degree ^ internal 70 down- Anterior (ventral) upper half out posterior (dorsal) lower half in- Functional and fitness capacity testing both assess ability to deliver oxygen to working muscles during exercise and tissue to pick up ox and product ATP and both are objective measure of safe functional ability in terms of aerobic capacity- Fitness testing assess VO2max which indicates max aerobic capacity and power + sport performance- Functional capacity testing indicates cardiovascular and pulmonary function to overall health: wingate (30 s cycle ergometer reset, max test) submax cycle or treadmill test- Diagnostic fitness testing is used in clinical/medical setting; identifies presence of disease, risk factor, or existing injury- Test usuall done in stages of increasing difficulty; look at how body responds to exercise intensities- Treadmill stress test: subject starts off walking and incline increases every minute; if can go to 25mins the speed goes up every minute- Reliability: results are reproducable, consistent, same each time- Individual consideration can affect validity and reliability- Standardized instruction: eating/drinking beforehand, certain meds, clothing- Match the mode of exercise testing to individual to ensure accurate estimation of maximal o2 consumption- Gas exchange; Respiratory exchange ration; ratio of oxygen consumption to co2 prod, indirectly shows muscles oxidative capacity to get energy, can be altered by exercise training; increase w increasing intensity, gives info ab carb and fat utilization; closer to 1 more carbs- Douglas bag and metabolic chart measure expired air volumes and concentration- Pulmonary function testing measures how well lungs inhale and exhale and how efficiently gasesexchange in blood- Can help diagnose restrictive and obstructive lung disease; restrictive is not able to inhale normal volume caused by scarring of lung tissue or abnormalities of muscles involved in respiration. Some diseases include intersitial lung disease, sarcoidosis, or muscle dystrophy- Obstructive is exhaling; asthma, copd, bronchitis, or cystic fibrosis- Whole body plethysmograph – in clinical setting, changes pressure inside to determine diff lung volumes- Spirometer records amt and rate of air that is inhaled and exhaled over period of time; often done at rest, but also used forced inhale and exhale- Total lung capacity: volume of air in lungs after max inhale; sum of vital capacity and residual volume.- Residual volume is amt of air in lungs after max expiration; cannot be measured with spirometry- Tidal volume: amt of air entering and leaving lungs w/ each breath normal resting breathing- ECG: electrogardiograph detects and records electric impulses generated by heart during & btwncontractions; 10 electrodes, 12-lead ecg is most accurate – placed in specific locations- Holter monitors can be worn continuously to record activity for long period- Commonly used in exercise stress tests, functional tests, rehab programs- P-wave atrial depolarization/atrial systole due to SA node electric impulse conductions- QRS complex: ventricular depolarization (atrial depolarization but not seen on ECG)- T-wave: ventricular repolarization; ventricular diastole- Pulse oximeter is noninvasive measure of o2 concentration in systemic blood (blood that carries oxygen to deliver to tissue), assesses pulmonary limitations during cardiopulmonary fitness testing, normal reading s 95-100%, hypoxemia < 90%- O2 levels normally fall during exercise bc/ PA lowers amt of O2 that can bind to hemoglobins dueto change properties in blood – blood typically adapts- Electromyography detects electrical activity in skeletal. Muscle- Intramuscular more invasive, external electrode inserted- Surface less invasive; electrodes applied to surface- Force platforms provide measure of force production & info ab muscle force and power output, provide voltage signals that are proportional to forces exerted on platform surface in vertical, horizontal, or lateral direction, often used to measure ground reaction forces; forces exerted by ground on body in contact w it, can help make adjustments to motor movements- Muscle biopsy assesses substrates and metabolites in skeletal muscle and determine type of fibers in specific muscles, can give info ab type and intensity of muscles from metabolic enzyme concentrations, tissue sample taken from belly of muscle and is frozen; type 1 dark type 2 light- Isokinetic dynamometer measures max muscle tension throughout rom set at constant angular velocity, measures max torque/peak rotational force of specific joints, provides force curve demonstrates force generation/max muscle tension at specific joint angles, varies resistance during movement so speed can be constant, can measure isometric contraction: joint angle and length of muscle don’t change during the movement- Purpose of isokinetic dynamometer is to measure imbalances, strengths of opposing muscle groups, measures force at various speeds. Common in rehab settings bc expensive and provides optimal loading of muscles- MRI: strong magnetic field, radio waves, can give info ab tissue abnormalities that x-ray can’t- MRS: measure of tissue substrates and metabolites; muscle biopsy invasive, MRS is not, used to assess disease status in tissues- Both MRS and MRI noninvasive and rely on techniques based on spin of atoms- Computed tomography use x-rays to provide scans of internal body structures 3-d or 2-d images- Blood collection and analysis involves use of anticoagulants to prevent from becoming solid, centrifuges separate plasma and blood cells, hematology is study of nature, function, and diseases of blood

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