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Film Analysis → film form-Evaluation-Analysis-Formal systems-Considering the systems of relations among the parts of the film-Prompts audience to respond in a certain way-Patterns/motifs (repetition & variation)-Motifs are repeated elements for a significant purpose-We look for variation, as well as repetitions-In summary, the aim/object of formal analysis is to identify patterns of repetition and variationwithin a system, and explain the function of those patternsIntroduction to (pre-classified) film narrative-“Primitive” cinema-Lumiere brothers (1895)-Life of an American Fireman (Porter 1903)-Had to do two different shots on the same scene bc they did not have thetechnology to switch back and forth between spaces-The Lonely Villa (Griffith, 1909) and crosscutting-Narrative: a chain of events in a cause-and-effect relationship occurring in time and space-The classical Hollywood cinema (ca. 1917 - ?)Basic components of classical Hollywood narratives-Exposition & enigmas-Exposition: sets out important story information and character traits-Can get at any point, but usually at the beginning-What film is about, what characters are like, and what happened before the filmstarted-Enigma: questions that need to be answered and will eventually be answered by the plot-Causality (vs. episodic narrative)-Linear chain of cause and effect-Every part of the film contributes to the part in some way-Each scene builds on the last and then adds more info-Motivation-Does not necessarily equal character motivation-Provide motivation for every event in the plot-Avoid coincidence-Everything has a reason for being there-Goal-oriented protagonist-What the protagonist wants drive the causality-Cause and effect/plot typically revolves around the efforts to achieve a goal-Character arc-Goal-oriented antagonist-Dual plot line: specific to classical Hollywood narratives-Second plot line that runs parallel, usually strongly connected-Usually romance-Closure-Resolves conflict-Narrative: a chain of events in a cause-and-effect relationship occurring in time and space-Like a blueprint, a finished building-Narrative: story v plot-Story-plot distinction-Diegesis: the world that is inhabited by the characters-Plot time v. story time-Order-Duration (story, plot, screen)-Frequency-Plot-Explicitly presented diegetic events-Added non-diegetic material (e.g. credits and & non-diegetic music)-Can/will rearrange events-Duration: what we see-Frequency: can happen more than once-Story-Explicitly presented diegetic events-Inferred material (e.g., backstory & ellipsis)-Chronological order of events-Duration: before and after plot as wellExample: Titanic-Story duration → 95+ years (1900-1997)-Plot duration → 2-3 days-Screen duration → a couple of hours (3 hr 15 min)-Narration:-Range of narration (unrestricted v. restricted)-Hierarchy of knowledge: refers to who knows what at any moment-Range of story information-How much we know vs how much the character knows-How much the character knows vs how much other characters know-Depth of narration-How deeply we have access to a character’s psychological state-Objective: what can be seen or heard by anyone in the film-Subjective (perceptual or mental): gives us access to a character’s literalsights or thoughts-POV shot-Narrative is the what, narration is the how-Introduction to art cinema-Art cinema is historically significant because it gives an alternative to traditional storytelling-Refers to a type of film that was produced in the 1940s to the 1970s in the Europeanindustries-Less frequently seen in the US as they were in the 1960s-Art cinema as a mode of production-Consciously proposed that could compete on the market-Hollywood films are making money here and abroad, so they can use more money tomake films-2 main methods to deal against Hollywood films-Create commercial films for regional markets-Has benefited from separate institutions-Film festivals, campus societies, etc-Showing and promoting films outside of the mainstreams-Narrational characteristics of art cinema-Regard art cinemas as deviations from the norm (Hollywood cinemas)-Motivated by two principles (David Bordwell):-Realism-Objective realism: offers it as life really is-Psychologically complex characters-Lack clear goals, react to things-Closer to real life people-May act inconsistently-Loose cause and effect / unclear motivation-Lack of closure-Open endings-Subjective realism-Tries to be true to the way people dream or think-Authorial expressivity-Film style: the unified, developed, and significant use of particular technical choices-Four categories of film style: editing, mise-en-scene, cinematography, and sound-Editing-Editing basics: transitions between shots-Cut: quick change of scenes-Dissolve: when there is a brief fade from one shot to another-Wipe: boundary line that moves across the screen that replaces one shot withanother-Fade: fade from light to dark (fadeout is the opposite)-Editing basics: relations between shots-Graphic design-Graphic match, graphic contrast-Graphic match: linking shot through similarities-Graphic contrast: contrasting of shots through graphicdifferences-Rhythmic relations-Accelerated editing-Shorter shots put together-Manipulate shots to create a specific rhythm-Can build a steady rhythm by having same length shots-Temporal relations-Fades mean that a period of time has passed, straight cuts usually meanthat it is in the same time (or close to it)-Order (flashback, flash forward)-Duration (temporal ellipsis, temporal expansion)-Temporal expansion: when an events takes longer than normal(ellipsis is opposite)-Frequency (temporal overlap)-A shot showing the same story event is repeated in succession-Spatial relations and the continuity editing system-His Girl Friday (Hawks, 1940) and continuity editing-Established shot-180 degree rule (axis of actions): creates half circle area inwhich the camera can be placed to maintain clear facial relations-Screen direction-Cut-in: tighter framing that highlights a certain space fornarrative purpose (show reactions to certain remarks, etc)-Shot/reverse shot: shots edited together to alternate views to seeone’s reactions-Match on action: begins in one shot and is completed in the next-Master shot-The Birds (Hitchcock,1963) and the Kuleshov Effect-Kuleshov Effect-Spectators will assume a basic look-The meaning of each shot depends on the shots aroundit-Offscreen space-Eyeline match v POV shot: character looking, then what theyare

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