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UP PHL 220 - Final Summary

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Theory What is it ProblemsDCT An action is right if God commands it - Euthyphro dilemma- Acting for ReasonsUtilitarianism - An action is right/wrong based on OUTCOMES- Consequentialism, Hedonism, Impartiality- Trashy pleasures- Evil/Sadistic pleasures- Illusory Pleasures (Experience Machine – Nozick)Punishment Theories - Retributivism (eye 4 eye)- Deterrence (prevent future crime)- Retributivism: punishment proportional to crime (mass killer)- Deterrence: punishing the innocentKant - Categorical Imperative: Duty- Principle of Universalizability (maxim can be applied anywhere/anytime)- Principle of Humanity (Don’t USE people … treat them as an END- Acting from Duty vs Acting in Accordance to Duty- Fanatic: can universalize a horrible maxim (kill all Peruvians)Doctrine of Double Effect DDE- Absolutists say you can break a rule if HARM is NOT INTENDED but only expected- If harm is UNAVOIDABLE, then it is INTENDED- Humans do not have a good understanding ofINTENTION (CEO1 vs CEO2)Doctrine of Doing and Allowing DDA- There is a moral difference between doing and allowing- You must compare apples to apples. Drowning child example and Syphilis exampleRelativism: Subjectivism - Morality is dependent on the individual’s preference and at a specific time- Moral Equivalence- Logic ContradictionRelativism: Cultural Relativism- Morality is dependent on the culture’s rules and at specific time- Moral Equivalence- No Moral Progress within a culture- Cannot explain divides within culturesPluralism - Many sources of value which are fundamental, objective BUT NOT ABSOLUTE- There is no method. But method only exists in math/science not real lifePluralism: WD Ross - Prima Facia Duties: 7 (at least). Fidelity, Reparations, Non-maleficence, etc- PFDs are self evidentPluralism: Nagel - Fundamental Sources of Value: 5. Specific Obligations, General Rights, etc- Personal Reasons for Action and Impersonal Reasons for ActionPluralism: Susan Wolf - Moral saints do not live a flourishing live. Dedicated only to otherso Loving Saint and Rational Saint- Moral Virtues and Non-Moral VirtuesAristotle - Eudaimonia = flourishing life- Ergon = function. Function of man involves reason- Arete = virtue. Lie in the middle of 2 vices- Phronesis = practical wisdom. Role models- 3 parts of soul (Vegetative, Appetitive, Rational)- Priority Problem. Aristotle makes the same mistake as DCT.- But that is NOT the

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