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GCC PHILO 101 - Metaphysics: God

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Metaphysics: God Outline 1. Two Questions a. 6 Theories 2. Arguments and Objections a. 5 More Focused Issues Q1: Do you believe in God? Q2: Is there evidence thats shows God exists (Preponderance)? Theism (Aquinas) Yes Yes 2 kinds of evidence: Deism (Voltaire) Yes Yes 1 kind of evidence: Atheism (Hume) No, I believe “God does NOT exist” No evidence that God exists. Yes, evidence that he does not exist Agnosticism No, I don’t have a belief either way No evidence that God exists and no evidence that he does not exist Fideism (Kierkegaard and Pascal) Yes No Religious Pluralism (Joseph Cambell) Yes (transcendant reality) Yes, all cultures (there is evidence but its different than the traditional evidence) - Red means you believe not because of evidence - Theism and Fideism both believe in God but one believes there is evidence and the other does not - 2 kinds of evidence: 1. Nature (Design) a. Publicly available b. Design 2. Revelationa. God revealed himself to a particular person (the Bible, because God inspired the person to write what he wanted) b. Miracles, religious experiences - True or F - Kiekegaurd believes Jesus rose from the dead - Kiekegaurd believes miracle stories constitute evidence - Aquinas believes miracle stories - Aquinas believes miracle stories constitute evidence - If Jimmy does not care whether God exists or not, he is agnostic - Johnny says he thinks there is an 80 percent chance God exists and 20 percent he does not, but he is not sure whether God exists. Thus, he is Agnostic. - D/t stands for nature, revelation - An Agnostic is someone who has no belief either way because the evidence is tied while Atheists believe there is no God because evidence is not tied and there is more evidence that God does not exist. - For the definition of Agnosticism, DO NOT say: 1. I do not care. 2. I am not sure. - Define each theory: - A Theist is someone who believes in God because two kinds of evidence show that God exists - A Deist is someone who believes in God because one kind of evidence shows that God exists - An Atheist is someone who believes God does not exist because evidence is not tied and there is more evidence he does not exist - An Agnostic is someone who has no belief either way because the evidence is tied - A Fediest is someone who believes in God but does not believe evidence supports it - A Religious Pluralism is someone who believes in God in the sense that all religions are true since they include transcendent reality and that there is evidence indicate this More Focused Issue #1 Is it legitimate to have religious beliefs without evidence?- Who says yes: Fideists a. Definition of Fideism (faith-ism): The theory that religious beliefs are a matter of faith, not evidence b. Argument in favor of Yes (Fideism): - “Pascal’s Wager” God exists God doesn’t exist You can believe that God exists + ∞(heaven) 0 You do not believe that he exists - ∞ (hell) 0 - Whether God exists or not is not your choice but if you believe it or not is - Evidence does not matter, consequences do - Summary: According to Pascal, it is better to believe in God because the consequences are better and the evidence does not matter - Who says no: All others - Objection to Pascal’s Wager: “Many Religions Objection” a. It is not legitimate to have religious beliefs without evidence b. There are many religions with no evidence to indicate they’re not true - Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Taoism, and Hon Michi c. So, if you are a Fideist, your religious beliefs are just as unjustified as anyone else's d. If you are a Fideist, if your religious beliefs are true, you guessed right More Focused Issue #2 Are all religions equally true metaphorically? - Who says yes: Religious Pluralists - Who says no: other five - Definition of religious pluralism is the view that all religions are true, metaphorically “All Culture Argument” in Favor of Religious Pluralism 1. All cultures have independently arrived at belief in a transcendent reality. 2. They’re not all crazy.Therefore: Probably a transcendent reality exists. - Contradiction objection: Different religions maintain contradictory beliefs. For example, some say there are many gods and others say there is one. - Religious Pluralist Response to ^: Different religions are all true metaphorically, not literally - Examples of metaphors: Love is a rose. Love is like sweet (not bitter) tea. Love is chemistry - Different Explanation: Freud More Focused Issue #3 Is there evidence (preponderance) observable in nature that God exists? - Who says yes: Theism and Deism a. Argument from Design (Teleological Argument) - Premise 1: The universe is like a watch. Both have design (unintelligent parts working together to accomplish a goal) - A watch has an intelligent designer - Therefore, the universe has an intelligent designer b. Objection to the Design Argument: Evolution - In one sentence: The design we see in nature comes from an unintelligent process, not an intelligent designer - In detail: - The unintelligent process in 3 steps a. Variation: Each individual is different b. Selection: Because of those small differences, some survive and some don’t. c. Reproduce: Kids have same characteristics as parents (then they have offspring with those characteristics, making it easier for them to survive - Who says no: Atheism, Angosticism, Fedeism - More Focused Issue #4Does revelation constitute evidence that God exists? - Who says yes: Theists a. Argument in favor of yes: (theist view, Aquinas) “Testimony Argument” - Testimony about (ordinary sensory experience) is evidence - Testimony about religious experiences is also evidence b. 2 Objections to the Testimony argument - Voltaire’s Argument Against revelations: - Who says no: Deists, Atheists, Agnostics, and Fedeists a. Fedeists: - Question 1: Do you believe in revelations? YES - Question 2: Do you believe that that constitutes evidence? NO - 2 Objections to the Testimony argument a. Voltaire’s Argument Against revelations “Unfair God Argument” -Metaphysics Theism (Aquinas) Deism (Voltaire) Atheism (Hume) Agnosticism Fideism (Kierkegaard, Pascal) Religious Pluralism (Joseph Cambell) Do you believe in God? Yes Yes No, I believe God doesn’t exist. No, I don’t have a belief either way. Yes Yes (transcendent reality) Is there (a preponderance of the)


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