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GCC PHILO 101 - Theme of the Apology

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Theme of the Apology - State it: The way things appear to most people is not really the way things are - Examples of theme in The Apology: - It appears to most people that Socrates does corrupt the youth but in reality he benefits the youth. He teaches them Socratic Wisdom and how people can be ignorant - It appears to most people that Socrates is impious, but in reality Socrates is pious. In the text, he had been trying to solve the oracle of Apollo his life without asking for pay, and he states that if he was offered freedom on the condition that he stop asking who is wise or not, he will refuse. - It appears to most people that Socrates believes he is wise but in reality Socrates believes that he is not wise and has Socratic Wisdom instead. People who think they are wise when they are not is arrogant .The judges think Socrates thinks he is wise because he states he is the wisest person alive, however they do not understand the Socratic Wisdom. - It appears to most people that to Meletus, Socrates is a clever speaker, but in reality, Socrates is not. It was a silly lie that he will prove today to the jury that he is not a clever speaker.By clever speaker, he means Socrates is a good liar and makes people think he is persuasive. By clever speaker, he meant persuasive liar. Socrates predicts in the first paragraph that he will be convicted because he won’t persuade and lie to you. He will be truthful and it will be proven because I will already be convicted. He is not persuasive because he tells the truth. Allegory of the Cave 4 Elements in the Allegory of the Cave What Each Element Symbolizes About Life in General What Each Element Symbolizes in the Apology Prisoners Humans: prior to learning to think clearly and accurately The Jury Chains Family and Culture: where you mostly get your ideas from The Earlier Accusers (Aristophonese) Shadows Appearance Socrates Corrupts the Youth, is Impious, and an Elegant Speaker Statues Reality Socrates Benefits the Youth, is Pious, and not an Elequent SpeakerSkepticism is a branch of Epistemology First Mediation: Premise, conclusion - Dreaming Argument: We should believe skepticism because we could all be dreaming (wake up and find out that everything is wrong) - Evil Demon Argument: - 1. Premise: It is possible that a powerful, evil demon is deceiving me right now. - 2. … (Therefore): I could be mistaken about everything and don’t know anything. - 3. - SKEPTICISM - The first Meditation is in favor of skepticism Second Meditation: I think; therefore, I am - Cogito ergo sum (I think; therefore, I am) - Meaning: I am having experiences/thoughts right now AND I exist right now - Why is it important: It’s the one statement we know for sure, that we cannot even imagine being wrong - Explain why: Know Don’t Know - (According to the First Meditation) NOTHING - (According to the Second Meditation) Cogito - Everything else (I am in a classroom right now) - Why do we know the cogito for sure but we don’t know anything else?? We don’t know ____ for sure because We can be dreaming or there can be an evil demon controlling everything but we do know cogito for sure because cogito (the two sentences) are true whether I am dreaming or not. - The MEANING is true either way, even if you are dreaming Descrates Conclusion after Both Meditations - What We Know: What is inside our minds (our thoughts and experiences) - What We Don’t Know: What is going on outside our minds - Practice: “This sugar is sweet.” Well, what do they know and what do they not know.? What they know is the experience of sweetness. What they do not know is sugar. - Practice: “My toe hurts.” Well, what they know is that they are experiencing pain. What they do not know is they have a toe.d - We found out skepticism is false because we know at least what goes on in our mind 3 Theories of How We Get Knowledge: 1. Medieval View: from authority2. Modern View #1: Empiricism- view that humans get knowledge primarily from sense experience (they see, hear, taste, and smell things) 3. Modern View #2: Rationalism - the view that humans get knowledge primarily from reason and intellect Descarte used Rationalism rather than experience Skepticism (Descarte) 1. Question 2. Background Info 3. First Meditation a. Dreaming Argument i. Argument, Premises, Conclusion ii. Evil Demon Argument 4. Second Meditation a. Cogito b. Descartes Conclusion c. 3

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