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UMD PSYC 101 - GLOSSARY

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GLOSSARY version 3.1AA fragment of a larger protein (APP) that accumulates in plaques in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients.Absolute riskThe risk of a certain event happening in one groupAbsolute risk reductionThe difference between the control group event rate and the experimental group event rate.AnginaChest pain associated with poor blood flow to the heart.AngiogenesisFormation of new blood vessels.AlveoliFinal branching of the respiratory tree and the primary gas exchange units of the lung.Amyloid plaqueA clump of amyloid proteins (A outside the cell found in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients.A is a fragment of a larger protein APP.AnalgesicA substance that relieves pain.AneurysmA balloon-like bulge of an artery wall.Aneurysm clippingA surgical procedure performed to treat an aneurysm by applying a clip at the neck.ApoEA protein coded for by a gene with several alleles. One of its functions is in A degradationApoplexyThe term formerly used for a strokeApoptosisProgrammed cell deathAsystole (flatline)No electrical activity in heartAtherosclerosisThickening of the artery wall as a result of the accumulation of fatty materials.Balloon angioplastyA technique for widening narrowed or obstructed arteries by inflating a balloon in the narrowedportion.Benign TumorA tumor that lacks the ability to invade neighboring neighboring tissue or distant tissue (metastasize)Black lung (pneumoconiosis)An industrial disease of coal miners caused by prolonged exposure to coal dust and leading to a decline in lung function.BronchiThe airways of the lungs leading to the alveoliBronchitisAn inflammation of the mucus membranes of the bronchi.CarcinogenAn agent that can cause cancerCardiogenic shockInadequate blood supply due to heart failureCatheter-directed thrombolysisX-ray imaging is used to help guide a catheter to the site of blood clots to deliver the drugs that can dissolve the clot.Cell theoryAll living things are composed of cells and cell productsCerebrovascular diseaseA group of conditions that affect the circulation of blood to the brain.Coil embolizationA surgical procedure performed to treat an aneurysm by filling the aneurysm with a fine wire.Compression of morbidityA hypothesis that the burden of lifetime illness may be compressed into a shorter period before the time of death, if the age of onset of the first chronic infirmity can be postponed.Confounding factorA ‘hidden’ variable that is responsible for the observed association.Congestive heart failure (aka chronic congestive heart failure)The heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the needs of the body.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)A progressive disease that affects the lungs, restricting airways and making it difficult to breathe.Cystic fibrosisA genetic disease causing the abnormal transport of chloride and sodium ions. This has many effects but by causing abnormally thick mucus it results in lung problems.DefibrillatorAn electrical device used to counteract fibrillation of the heart muscle and restore normal heartbeat by applying a brief electric shock.DiastoleRelaxation of the heart muscle.DysplasiaAbnormality of development.EmbolismLodging of a travelling blood clot (an embolus) at a site distant to origin.EmphysemaAn obstructive lung disease caused by the destruction of the walls of the alveoli.EpigeneticsThe study of changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence.EtiologyThe study of causationEuthanasiaIntentionally ending a life in order to end pain and sufferingForest plotA graphical display to present the results of a meta-analysisFundamental Axiom in Preventive MedicineA large number of people exposed to a small risk may generate many more cases than a small number of people exposed to a large riskFunnel plotA graphical display used in meta-analysis to look for publication bias.GlucoseA simple sugar that is absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion and is used by cells as their primary source of energyGlucose transportersProteins in cell membranes that facilitate the transport of glucose across the membrane.HemiplegiaParalysis on one side of the bodyHemorrhagic strokeWhen a blood vessel bursts in the brain. Blood accumulates and compresses the surrounding brain tissue. HomeostasisAbility of an organism to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.HyperplasiaAn increase in the number of cells.HypertensionHigh blood pressureHypertrophyAn increase in the size of cells.IncidenceThe number of new cases of a disease occurring in a given population over a certain period of time. InsulinA protein produced in the pancreas that causes cells to take up gluscose.Insulin receptorsProteins in cell membranes that bind to insulin and stimulate an array of responses including the uptake of sugar by the cell (via the glucose transporters).Insulin resistanceA decreased ability of some of the cells of the body to respond to insulin.IschemiaA restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose.Ischemic strokeThe physical blockage of blood flow to an area of the brain, causing brain cells in the area to die.Lead time biasDetecting diseases earlier (eg by screening) makes survival times appear longer even when death occurs at the same point.Malignant TumorA tumor that has the ability to invade neighboring neighboring tissue or distant tissue (metastasize).Meta-analysisA statistical technique for combining the findings from multiple independent studies.MetastasisSpread of cancer from one organ to another.MorbidityThe state of being diseased (cf. mortality)Mucus escalatorThe upward movement of mucus in the lungs caused by the coordinated movement of cilia.MutationA change in the genetic materialNeurofibrillary tanglesTangles of an abnormal form of tau protein inside the neurons of Alzheimer’s patients causing cell death. NephronThe basic functional unit of the kidney.Number needed to treat (NNT)The number of patients who must receive a particular drug or treatment in order for one to benefit.OncogeneA gene that has the potential to cause cancer.Opt-in (organ donation system)Only those who have given explicit consent are potential donorsOpt-out (organ donation system)Anyone who has not refused consent is a potential donorOverdiagnosisThe diagnosis of a disease that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's lifetime. A big problem in cancer screens.p53 gene A Tumor


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