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PSU PSYCH 100 - Psychology Exam Study Notes

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School: Penn State University (University Park)Class: Psychology 100)Final Exam Study Notes:(Psychology: The Scientific Study of Behavior, Emotion and Mental Processes.)Day Three: (Psychology 100)(Influences from Philosophy) • Practices of the Early Egyptians suggest that the heart was more important than the brain.• The process of Trepanation dates back to 10,000 years and helps to save patients with brain damage. • Plato (427 to 347 B.C): - He came up with the Tripartite Theory of Reasoning. (Plato's theory of soul, drawing on the words of his teacher Socrates, considered the psyche to be the essence of a person, being that which decides how people behave. He considered this essence to be an incorporeal, eternal occupant of our being. Plato said that even after death, the soul exists and is able to think.)- He learned towards Logical Reasoning. • Aristotle (384 to 322 B.C) - Aristotle followed the Cardiac Hypothesis of Reasoning. - He believed that the brain is of minor importance compared to the heart. Day Four: (Psychology 100)• Hippocrates (460 to 377 B.C): - He followed a Medical Model to explain Mental Illness known as the Humoral Theory. - He believed that External Factors and actions of the Gods being linked to Mental Illness is bogus and Mental Illness is solely biological and should be taken to a Hospital. - He believed that a body being in Equilibrium is the key to curing Mental Illness (With Bodily Fluids). - He was convinced that the brain was the major controlling center. - The heart was always doing something and the brain was just sitting on its opinions. • Claude Galen (130 to 200 A.D):- Surgeon to the Gladiators - He stated the Brain was the Central Organ of Cognition. - Ventricular Theory: If you were to look at the human brain, you would find cavities (AKA) ventricles. (Influences of Physiology) • Localization versus Holism: • Renes Descartes (1596 to 1650): (Followed a Dualism to Scientific Study) - He believes that the body is an automaton with tiny tubes or balloons running into the muscles. - Interaction is at the Pineal Gland, almost operating as a “conference room” for the mind to tell the body what to do.• Franz Joseph Gall (1758 to 1828 A.D): - He started the Pseudoscience known as Phrenology (You can determine the Ethics of someone’s character based on the bumps on their head). - He utilized Personal Opinions and Individual Cases, that map out areas. - His theory was promising but had very poor methodology. - He analyzes people’s personalities by recording the shape of their skull and bumps on their head. • Marie Jean Pierre Flourens (1794 to 1867 A.D): (Fought for Localization) - He was specifically hired by the French Government to refute Gall’s ideas. - He conducted experiments on animals, rather than humans. Day Five: (Psychology 100)• Fritsch and Hitzig (Circa. 1870): - Fritsch and Hitzig saw that stimulation of the cortex caused movement of the dogs' contralateral muscles. Furthermore, they found that the stimulation produced movement in a predictable way, as if certain areas of the body were mapped onto the cortex (in the way Jackson had predicted). Thus, Fritsch and Hitzig provided the first widely recognized piece of experimental evidence for what would eventually be known as the motor cortex. - Neuroscience now views the cerebral cortex as a region of the brain that is essential for sensation, movement, and the heightened level of cognition we associate with humans as compared other animals. • Paul Broca (Circa. 1865): - He published a case of a patient “tan” who had great language difficulties and suffered left hemisphere damage. - “Nous parlons avec l’hemisphere gauche” (We speak with the Left Hemisphere) (Birth of Psychology as a science: Structuralism V.S Functionalism) • Wilhelm Wundt (1832 to 1920) - He established the first Psychology lab in Germany (1879). - “Is it possible to measure Mental Processing?” - He constructed the Process of Introspection. (Introspection Study Example. “Inquiring about the emotions and memories evoked from looking at a picture of your pets”)• Edward Titchener (1867 to 1927): - He was a Student of Wundt, who advanced Introspection and started Structuralism. - He attempted to Map the Elements of the Mind. - He was associated with Structuralism, which is the idea of dissecting the mind and breaking it down into Individual Components. - Criticisms of Structuralism: It has to be learned how to generalize it with larger groups ofpeople. Day Six: (Psychology 100)• William James (1842 to 1910): - He was considered the first “American” Psychologist. - He describes the mind as a constantly flowing stream. - He focuses on the adaptive purpose or intent of Cognition and Behavior. - He is a firm believer in Functionalism, explaining behaviors like a chain of reactions.• Sigmund Freud: (The Father of Psychology)- He established Neurologist in Vienna, studying Hysteria. - He engaged in “Talk” Therapy to uncover unconscious influences. - He was a critic of Psychoanalysis. (Psychoanalysis: A system of psychological theory andtherapy which aims to treat mental disorders by investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious elements in the mind and bringing repressed fears and conflicts into the conscious mind by techniques such as dream interpretation and free association.) Day Seven: (Psychology 100)• ID: Reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic drives (Operates on the Pleasure Principle). (Example: Mr. Hyde is the other personality of kind Dr. Jekyll.Mr. Hyde is wild, impulsive and even violent. Freud would say that Mr. Hyde is a manifestation of what element of Dr. Jekyll? His ID.) • Ego: Develops out of the demands of the environment as well as constraints (Follows a reality principle). • Superego: Based on a perfect self, obeying high ethical standards (Follows an idealistic principle). • Conscious: Contact with the Outside World • Pre-Conscious: Material just beneath the surface of awareness • Unconscious: Difficult to retrieve material; well below the surface of awareness • Defense Mechanisms: The Ego’s protective method to deal with unacceptable impulses and anxiety. • Denial Displacement, Protection and Reaction Formation serve as different defense mechanisms. • Protective Tests: Personality assessments which present ambiguous visual stimuli to a client and ask them to respond. •

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