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Virginia Tech PSYC 2034 - Reading & Study Guide 1.1 & 1.3

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Section 1Section 3Developmental PsychologyReading & Study Guide 1.1 & 1.3Read the specified sections and answer the associated questions. Be sure to use your own words (different from the book) when answering. You should work independently.Satisfactory assignments are submitted on time before class time on CANVAS (1 point),with all questions attempted (1 point), and as accurately as possible (3 points). Your work indicates you made an honest and effortful attempt to answer the questions correctly (5 Points total).Section 11) Over the past 10,000 years the worlds’ population has changed in at dramaticallydifferent rates than it did for the majority of human history. Explain WHY this is.One of the main reasons why the population has changed faster than usual is a much lower death rate. Also certain historical events caused higher birth rates such as the American revolution.2) Give examples of DEVELOPED countries and DEVELOPING countries.Norway, ireland, and Germany are all developed countries. While, China, India and Brazil are all developing countries.3) Give TWO reasons is the United States following a different demographic path than other developed countries?Climate change could lead to poverty and also fluctuations in the economy could both cause birth rates to decrease4) Distinguish between DEVELOPED countries and DEVELOPING countries in terms of (A) income, (B) education, and (C) cultural values. Be sure to DEFINE and use the terms INDIVIDUALIST VALUES, COLLECTIVISTIC VALUES, and TRADITIONAL CULTURES Developed countries are more economically advanced and have the highest median income levels and education. Developing countries have lower levels of income and education but have rapid economic growth.-Individualistic values: cultural values such as independence and self expression-Collectivistic values: cultural values such as group harmony and obedience -traditional cultures: a rural culture in developing countries that adheres closely to cultural traditions than people in an urban culture.5) What is GLOBALIZATION and why does it make it important to study human development with a CULTURAL APPROACH?Developmental PsychologyGlobalization is the process of interaction between governments company’s and people.It’s important to study a cultural approach because it helps take a humanistic look at development over time.6) In your own words define SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES).A measurement of education, income and occupation which helps determine a persons social standing.7) Explain why (A) SES, (B) gender, and (C) ethnicity are important aspects of human development within countries.These three aspects of human development are important in creating a diverse, rich population with a wide range of people.8) What is an ECOLOGICAL NICHE and why are humans NOT confined to an ecological niche?A niche is a role or job of a species in a habitat, humans are free to do any job and live virtually anywhere so this does not apply to us.9) Explain NATURAL SELECTION in your own words.Organisms adapt over time to their environment and produce offspring that are also adapted to the environment.10)Trace the evolutionary origins of the human species.We originated from Africa within the last 200,000 years. Hominid was an evolutionary line that led to modern humans. 11)Describe the major developments during (A) the Upper Paleolithic period, (B) the Neolithic period, and (C) emergence of civilization.A) Upper Paleolithic: 40,000 to 10,000 years ago. Nomadic societies, stone tools, building firesB) Neolithic: 10,000 to 5,000 years ago. Farming and agricultural advancesC) Civilization: 5,000 years ago. Cities states, writing, social interaction, scienceSection 31) Explain the five steps of the scientific method.The first step is to make an observation which leads to a main question. Then, a hypothesis can be formed to start an experiment. Analysis and conclusion are the final steps of the scientific method.Developmental Psychology2) Describe the QUESTIONNAIRE method for collecting date. What are the strengths and limitations of a questionnaire?The questionnaire method can be face to face, over the phone or even over email. This makes a questionnaire an easier way of collecting data. But on the down side, it’s much less personal and less observant.3) Describe the INTERVIEW method for collecting date. What are the strengths andlimitations of an interview?An interview is more professional and realistic for collecting data. Strategic questions are asked to ensure an authentic answer. They can sometimes make the subjects tenseor nervous and that leads to faulty data.4) Describe the OBSERVATION method for collecting date. What are the strengths and limitations of an observation? What is the difference between a naturalistic observation and a structured observation?This allows scientists to take a deeper look at the subject to collect data. This is done with or without the knowledge of the subjects. Naturalistic observation is done without the subject knowing and structured observation is more planned.5) Describe the BIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT method for collecting date. What are the strengths and limitations of a questionnaire?Biological measurement uses human responses to observe and collect data, this might not be possible in all questionnaires.6) Explain the two types of RELIABILITY.Reliability is the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and consistent results. There is test/retest reliability and inter-rater reliability.7) What does it mean for a measurement to be VALID?Extent to which a research method measures what it claims to measure. It can be used in the experiment and will not invalidate the rest of the data8) Describe the EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. What are the strengths and limitations of an experiment?In an experiment there is an independent variable which is the variable that is being manipulated by the researcher and the dependent variable is what is being measured. 9) Describe the NATURALISTIC EXPERIMENT. What are the strengths and limitations of a naturalistic experiment?Developmental PsychologyA naturalistic experiment is a situation that occurs and exists naturally but can be observed and provides scientific information and data.10)Describe ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH. What are the strengths and limitations of ethnographic research?In this type of research, you approach it from a cultural perspective with the goal of collecting data through interpretation, understanding and

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