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HFCC MATH 131 - BROKEN SYMMETRY

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BROKEN SYMMETRYPEOPLE WHO CONTRIBUTED TO THE IDEA OF BROKEN SYMMETRY:Sino-Sino nga ba tong mga taong ito na tumulong na mag contribute sa idea ng broken symmetry nato?I will start with great physicist na si Pierre Curie, who with his wife, Marie, the couple discovered radioactivity, stated the general principle that "effects are as symmetric as their causes." However, the world is full of effects that are not as symmetric as their causes, and the reason for this is a phenomenon known as "spontaneous symmetry breaking." So Ano nga ba tong Spontaneous Symmetry breaking na to? Spontaneous Symmetry is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.Boris P. Belousov a Russian chemist and in 1958 he discovered a chemical reaction that spontaneously formed patterns, apparently out of nothing, his colleagues refused to believe him. Because They assumed that he had made a mistake. They didn't even bother checking his work, they think that he was so obviously wrong and that checking his work would be a waste of time. Which was a pity, because Belousov was right. The particular pattern that Belousov discovered existed not in space but in time: his reaction oscillated through a periodic sequence of chemical changes.Anatol M. Zhabotinskii, (1963) is another Russian chemist andhe had modified Belousov's reaction so that it formed patterns in space as well. In their honor, any similar chemical reaction is given the generic name "BelousovZhabotinskii [or B-ZJ reaction." B-ZJ reaction is a family of oscillating chemical reactions. During these reactions, transition-metal ions catalyze oxidation of various, usually organic, reductants by bromic acid in acidic water solution. Most BZ reactions are homogeneous. The BZ reaction makes it possible to observe development of complexpatterns in time and space by naked eye on a very convenienthuman time scale of dozens of seconds and space scale of severalmillimeters. The BZ reaction can generate up to several thousand oscillatory cycles in a closed system, which permits studying chemical waves and patterns without constant replenishment of reactants. But The chemicals used nowadays are different and simpler with some refinements made by the British reproductive biologist Jack Cohen and the American mathematical biologist Arthur Winfree the experiment is now so simple that it can be done by anyone with access to the necessary chemicals.EXAMPLES OF THE SYMMETRIES FOUND IN NATURE In Nature, there are three classifications of symmetry found in living organisms. Point symmetry (a kind of reflective symmetry) means that any straight cut through the center point divides the organism into mirroring halves, examples of this is Some floating animals with radiating parts, and also some microscopic protozoa fit into this category. Animals with this layout are all very small, Radial symmetry (a kind of rotational symmetry). means that a cone or disk shape is symmetrical around a central axis, Starfish, sea anemones, jellyfish, and some flowers have radial symmetry. And lastly, plane or bilateral symmetry (also reflective symmetry) means that a body can be divided by a central (sagittal) plane into two equal halves that form mirror images of each other. Human beings, insects, and mammals all show bilateral symmetry. But Nature exhibits symmetries on larger scales too. A developing frog embryo begins life as a spherical cell, thenloses symmetry step by step as it divides, until it has become a blastula, thousands of tiny cells whose overall form is again spherical. Then the blastula begins to engulf part of itself, in the process known as gastrulation. During the early stages of this collapse, the embryo has rotational symmetry about an axis, whose position is often determined by the initial distribution of yolk in the egg, or sometimes by the point of sperm entry. Later this symmetry is broken, and only a single mirror symmetry isretained, leading to the bilateral symmetry of the adult. Volcanoesare conical, stars are spherical, galaxies are spiral or elliptical. According to some cosmologists, the universe itself resembles nothing so much as a gigantic expanding ball. Any understanding of nature must include an understanding of these prevalent patterns. It must explain why they are so common, and why manydifferent aspects of nature show the same patterns. Raindrops and stars are spheres, whirlpools and galaxies are spirals, honeycombs and the Devil's Causeway are arrays of


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