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LSU Health Shreveport EPID 6223 - EXERCISE 2

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EPID 6223 - Chronic Disease Epidemiology 2021Nicole TobisonEXERCISE 2: Addresses each of the following. 1. Identify a chronic disease in which you have the most interest.One chronic disease that I find interesting is Alzheimer’s disease, specifically the late-onset version of the disease. I’m interested in Alzheimer’s disease because so many people are affected by it as they age, including my grandma. 2. Briefly explain the disease's Etiology and Natural History by defining your chronic disease of interest’s:a. SusceptibilityAn individual’s susceptibility for Alzheimer’s disease increases with age: in high-income countries, the number of diagnoses jumps from one in nine people at age 65 and older to one in three people at age 85 and older. Another aspect of susceptibility stems from an individual’s genetic makeup. There is an increased level of susceptibility for Alzheimer’s disease if an individual has the epsilon 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene. Finally, there is evidence of increased susceptibility for Alzheimer’s disease if an individual has vascular disease or insulin resistance (Remington et al., 2016). b. PathogenesisAlzheimer’s disease stems from an accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles of the protein tau inside neurons and beta-amyloid plaque outside of neurons. This accumulation of plaques and tangles interferes with synaptic signaling in the hippocampus, which ultimately leads to a decline in the number of synapses, neuronal death, and cortical atrophy (Remington et al., 2016). c. Clinical manifestationThe clinical manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease changes as the disease progresses. An individual in early stages of Alzheimer’s might show signs of memory loss, misplacing or losing items, and personality changes. Moderate Alzheimer’s is characterized by increased confusion and memory loss, problems with language, problems recognizing friends and family, and anger outbursts. Cases of severe or advanced Alzheimer’s are characterized by inability to communicate, trouble swallowing, and loss of bowel and bladder control (NIH). d. OutcomesCurrently, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease. Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are treated with a variety of medication; however, there is no treatment available that slows the progression of the disease. People can live with Alzheimer’s with years, depending on the rate of progression of the disease. Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of death due to Alzheimer’s disease because of the difficulty swallowing it causes (NIH).EPID 6223 - Chronic Disease Epidemiology 2021Bonus: Research and submit a biological model for the chronic disease that you have the mostinterest. Image from Sajjad et al. (2018)EPID 6223 - Chronic Disease Epidemiology 2021ReferencesRemington, P. L., Brownson, R. C., & Wegner, M. V. (2016). Chronic disease epidemiology, prevention, and control (4th ed.). Alpha Press. Sajjad, R., Arif, R., Shah, A. A., Manzoor, I., & Mustafa, G. (2018). Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Amyloid-beta and Hyperphosphorylated Tau Protein. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 80(4). What Are the Signs of Alzheimer's Disease? (2017, May 16).

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