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DNA Summarized Notes

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Nucleic AcidsComparison of DNA and RNADNARNANameDeoxyriboNucleic AcidRiboNucleic AcidFunctionLong-term storage of genetic information; transmission of genetic information to make other cells and new organisms.Used to transfer the genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosomes to make proteins.Structural FeaturesB-form double helix. DNA is a double-stranded molecule consisting of a long chain of nucleotides.A-form helix. RNA usually is a single-strand helix consisting of shorter chains of nucleotides.Composition of Sugarsdeoxyribose sugarribose sugarPropagationDNA is self-replicating.RNA is synthesized from DNA on an as-needed basis.Base PairingAT (adenine-thymine) GC (guanine-cytosine)AU (adenine-uracil) GC (guanine-cytosine)Ultraviolet DamageDNA is susceptible to UV damage.RNA is relatively resistant to UV damage.LocationDNA is found in the nucleus, with a small amount of DNA also present in mitochondria.RNA forms in the nucleolus, and then moves to the cytoplasm depending on the type of RNA formed. Mackenzie, R.J.( 2020, Dec 18). DNA vs. RNA – 5 Key Differences and Comparison [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.technologynetworks.com/genomics/lists/what-are-the-key-differences-between-dna-and-rna-296719Nucleic AcidsDNA Nucleic acids are organic molecules that control the synthesis of protein in all living cells by storing and transferring genetic information.Two types of nucleic acids:- Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)- Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)Where is DNA located?- In the nucleus, Outside the nucleus, mitochondria and in the chloroplast- DNA found outside the nucleus is known as Extranuclear DNA.In what form is the DNA Found?- DNA is found in a form of chromosomes in the nucleus.- These chromosomes carry the heredity information in the form of genes.DNA Structure- Double-stranded with twisted strands (Double-helix)- When unwound it looks like a ladder.- DNA is simply a polymer made up of a large number of similar units or building blocks known as monomers.These monomers are called Nucleotides.1. Sugar Molecules- Deoxyribose (symbol D)2. Phosphate group (symbol P)3. Nitrogen basesNitrogenous Bases- DNA has four different types of nitrogenous bases:1. Adenine2. Thymine3. Guanine4. CytosineNitrogenous bases pair as follows:Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T)Guanine (G) pair with Cytosine (C)These Nitrogenous bases are joined together by weak hydrogen bonds, which can be easily broken down by enzymes.DNA Profiling - DNA profiling Is the process in which a specific DNA pattern, called profile, is collected from a person a sample of bodily tissue. During DNA profiling a pattern of dark bands that is unique to a person is produced.Every individual on earth has his/her own unique DNA profile, Except for in case of identicaltwins with the same DNA profile.Main Uses for DNA Profiling are:- To help establish the compatibility of tissue type for organ transplant- To identify diseases- To gain proof of paternity- To identify crime suspects in forensic investigations- To match lost family membersDNA Replication What is DNA Replication?- It Is the process in which DNA makes an extra copy of itself.Replication takes place during interphase stage of the cell cycle.The Process of DNA Replication- The double helix structure unwinds, forming two strands in the shape of ladder.- Weak hydrogen bonds between the base pair break and the two DNA strands Unzip.- Each original DNA strand now serves as a template on which it’s complement is built.- Free floating nucleotides in the nucleoplasm build a complementary DNA strand onto each of the original two strands of DNA.- This results in two identical DNA molecules. Each molecule consisting of one original and one new strand.- This whole process takes place under the help of an enzyme called DNA polymerase.Importance of DNA Replication- Results in the formation of identical daughter cells during mitosis.- Doubles the genetic material so it can be shared between the resulting daughter cells during cell division.RNA - Stands for Ribonucleic AcidLocation of RNA- It is found in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm.- It also forms part of the ribosomes.Structure of RNA- Consist of a single strand.Just like DNA, RNA is a polymer with nucleotides as monomers.Nucleotides found in RNA4. Sugar Molecules- Ribosome (symbol R)5. Phosphate group (symbol P)6. Nitrogen basesNitrogenous Bases- RNA has four different types of nitrogenous bases:5. Adenine6. Uracil7. Guanine8. CytosineNitrogenous bases pair as follows:Adenine (A) pairs with Uracil (U)Guanine (G) pair with Cytosine (C)These Nitrogenous bases are joined together by weak hydrogen bonds, which can be easily broken down by enzymes.Types of RNAMessenger RNA (mRNA)- mRNA carries the genetic code from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome in the cytoplasm and thus acts as a messenger.Transfer RNA (tRNA)- tRNA picks up amino acids in the cytoplasm and takes them to the ribosome where protein synthesis occurs. It acts as a transfer molecule.Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- rRNA it forms the structure of the ribosomes in the cytoplasm and plays a role in the control of protein synthesis.Difference between DNA and RNAComparison of DNA and RNADNA RNAName DeoxyriboNucleic Acid RiboNucleic AcidFunction Long-term storage of genetic information; transmission of genetic information to make other cells and new organisms.Used to transfer the genetic code from the nucleus to the ribosomes to make proteins. Structural Features B-form double helix. DNA is a double-stranded molecule consisting of a long chain of nucleotides.A-form helix. RNA usually isa single-strand helix consisting of shorter chains ofnucleotides.Composition of Sugarsdeoxyribose sugar ribose sugarPropagation DNA is self-replicating. RNA is synthesized from DNA on an as-needed basis.Base Pairing AT (adenine-thymine)GC (guanine-cytosine)AU (adenine-uracil)GC (guanine-cytosine)Ultraviolet Damage DNA is susceptible to UV damage. RNA is relatively resistant toUV damage.LocationDNA is found in the nucleus, with asmall amount of DNA also present RNA forms in the nucleolus, and then moves to thein mitochondria. cytoplasm depending on the type of RNA formed. Protein Synthesis- It is the process whereby proteins are manufactured in a living cell.DNA and RNA control the synthesis of proteinsTwo types of processes:- Transcription - TranslationTranscription 1. DNA unwinds and splits.2. One DNA strand acts as a template for forming mRNA.3. Free nucleotides arrange to form mRNA according to


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