New version page

U of M PSY 3031 - Psychology Notes

Upgrade to remove ads
Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

1.1: Introduction to Interactive Psychology: People is Perspective Psychology The scientific study of mind and behavior  Can be applied to everyday1.2: Thinking Like a Psychological Scientist Psychology is an exacting science Uses rigorous scientific methods to develop insights into mind and behavior Study of psychology = study of psychological science Psychologists combine Curiosity/sense of wonder about people Healthy skepticism Psychologists evaluate info and are ready to reject false idea through evidence Psychology is continuously evolving Psychology is summative “It rests on a body of knowledge that is continuously growing”  One study/experiment rarely proves anything beyond a doubt Any given behavior has multiple causes  Common misperceptions can make difficult to accurately observe behavior Overconfidence effect Tendency to be overly sure of what we know Unreasonably confident that own intuitions are correct  Confirmation bias Tendency to seek out/pay attention to/believe evidence that supports what we already are confident we know  Counter this by seeking out news analysis from different media sources Research shows learning more about scientific evidence can help overcome biases1.3: A Brief History of Psychology Born in Western Europe Scientific branch  took root in Universities- Intellectual endeavors- Scientific experimentation Psychology = experimental studies of perception/thought/behavior Wilhelm Wundt in 1879s Germany William James in 1880s America Clinical branch took root in Medical examination rooms- Therapeutic interventions Treat psychological disorders Psychology = psychotherapy/psychiatry/clinical practice Sigmund Freud at turn of 20th century Austria, then England Branches have merged  Psychological profession use scientifically supported treatments  Research sometimes focus on psychology and medicine simultaneously Early psychology was theoretical and often based on false assumptions Some early research was highly unethical  Today, psychological scientist adhere to ethical guidelines and embrace open science Transparency of research so findings can be shared and tested 1.4: Psychological Science: Research and Evidence Early psychological and medical studies Rely on Intuition Simple observations Theories Attempt to explain causes and effects At times led to bizarre conclusions Animal magnetism- Property of the animal body that makes it susceptible to the influence of celestial bodiesand reciprocal action of those around it- Franz Mesmer Pseudoscience Makes claims that are supposedly based on rigorous science and fact Not supported by reliable scientific evidence- Evidence: Available body of facts and info indicating whether a belief or proposition is true/valid Some is well intentioned and contains grain of truth- Cite valid research but incorrect conclusion Empirical evidence Best evidence Based on astute observation and accurate measurement  Cutting edge technology Questionnaires- Simplicity hides that they are based on voluminous amounts of research  Ensures reliability and validity 1.5: Popular Psychology and Critical Thinking Popular (pop) psychology Social media, websites, magazines, TV shows, some self-help books, and clickbait Public often accepts as truth Often based on Invalid research Unproven propositions Misinterpreted data or observations Oversimplified Most is completely harmless False/faked/unethical science = possible serious consequences Many assume that psychological truth = common sense Sometimes studies reveal that our intuitions are wrong Homeopathy Treatment of diseases (asthma, cancer, dementia) by tiny doses of natural substances that in a healthy person would produce symptoms of disease Not an effective treatment for any health condition Rebirthing therapy Treat certain psychological disorder by simulating the birthing process  Misunderstandings emphasize need for psychological literacy  Critical thinking Purposeful, reasoned, and goal directed thinking that seeks to examine evidence, evaluate conclusions, solve problems, make decisions, and formulate reasonable and accurate conclusions 3 key critical-thinking questions to better evaluate claims- What scientific evidence supports this claim?- Has this topic been studied empirically?- Am I listening to (or reading) someone’s opinion, or is the information based on facts that are accepted by unbiased experts?1.6: Psychology: People in Perspective Teams of psychological scientists look into different aspects of the extremely complex human behavior Psychologists use different perspectives Develop a fuller understanding of a phenomenon  Reveal a set of themes that unify psychology Nature and nurture interact to predict behavior Psychology seeks to identify which aspect so behavior are universal to all people and which vary across cultures Behavior is shaped by conscious understanding and unconscious processes We gain insights by understanding normal functioning and dysfunctions Applying psychology can change our lives in positive ways Combining psychological perspectives helps us understand the mind and behavior more deeply Psychological Perspectives and unifying themes  Explaining broader patterns of behavior Evolutionary perspective- Identifies aspects of behavior that are the result of evolutionary adaptions Cultural perspective- Investigates how cultural context affects people’s thoughts and preferences Understanding current thoughts and feelings Cognitive perspective- Studies mental processes that underlie perception, thought, learning, memory, language, and creativity Emotional perspective- Examines how the human capacity to feel/express/perceive emotions plays important role in decision making/behavior/social relationships Identifying the roles of the body and brain Biological-neuroscience perspective- Studies the biological underpinning of how we think, act, and behave Acknowledging both stability and change in behavior across time and situation Developmental perspective - Examines how people change physically/cognitively/socially/emotionally as they age Personality perspective- Seeks to understand aspects of behavior that are relatively stable over time and


View Full Document
Download Psychology Notes
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Psychology Notes and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Psychology Notes 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?