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UConn EEB 2245 - Vocabulary Words

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Vocabulary Words● allopatric : Of a population or species, occupying a geographic region different andseparated from that of another population or species.● allopatric speciation: speciation by genetic divergence of allopatric populations of anancestral species; contrasted with parapatric and sympatric speciation, in whichdivergence occurs in parapatry or sympatry● altruistic traits: Conferral of a benefit on other individuals at an apparent cost to the donor.● biological species concept: A population or group of populations within which genes areactually or potentially exchanged by interbreeding, and which are reproductively isolated fromother such groups.● coalesce : Derivation of the gene copies in one or more populations from a single ancestralcopy, viewed retrospectively (from the present back into the past).● codon bias: Nonrandom usage of synonymous codons to encode a given amino acid.● dispersal: In population biology, movement of individual organisms to different localities; inbiogeography, extension of the geographic range of a species by movement of individuals.● Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities: Reduction in the fitness of a hybrid because ofinteraction between certain alleles in one parent population with specific alleles at other loci inthe other parent population.● Direct fitness:● Indirect fitness● Inclusive fitness: The fitness of a gene or genotype as measured by its effect on the survivalor reproduction of both the organism bearing it (direct fitness) and the genes, identical bydescent, borne by the organism’s relatives (indirect fitness).● ecological isolation● ecological speciation: Speciation caused by divergent selection, by ecological factors, oncharacteristics that contribute to reproductive isolation.● effective population size: the effective size of a real population is equal to the number ofindividuals in an ideal population (i.e., a population in which all individuals reproduce equally)that produces the rate of genetic drift seen in the real population.● endosymbionts: An organism that resides within the cells of a host species.● eusocial: Animal societies characterized by overlapping generations, cooperative care ofoffspring (including those of other individuals), and a division of labor between reproductiveand non-reproductive groups of adults.● founder event: A population bottleneck that results when a new population is founded by asmall number of individuals.● gene tree: A diagram representing the history by which gene copies have been derived fromancestral gene copies in previous generations.● genetic conflict: Antagonistic fitness relationships between alleles, either at the samelocus (intralocus conflict) or at different loci (interlocus conflict).● genetic drift: Random changes in the frequencies of two or more alleles or genotypeswithin a population.● genic selection: A form of selection in which the single gene● is the unit of selection, such that the outcome is determined by fitness values assigned todifferent alleles. See individual selection, kin selection, natural selection.● genome scan: The entire complement of DNA sequences in a cell or organism. Adistinction may be made between the nuclear genome and organelle genomes, such as thoseof mitochondria and plastids.● group selection: The differential rate of origination or extinction of whole populations (orspecies, if the term is used broadly) on the basis of differences among them in one or morecharacteristics. May also refer to differences among populations in their contribution of genesto the combined gene pool. See also interdemic selection, species selection.● Haldane’s rule: he generalization that when only one sex manifests sterility or inviability inhybrids between species, it is the heterogametic sex (with two different sex chromosomes)that does so.● Hardy-Weingberg equilibrium: Pertaining to the genotype frequencies expected at alocus under ideal equilibrium conditions in a randomly mating population.● horizontal transmission: Movement of genes or symbionts (such as parasites) betweenindividual organisms other than by transmission from parents to their offspring (which isvertical transmission). Horizontal transmission of genes is also called lateral gene transfer.● hybrid zones: A region in which genetically distinct populations come into contact andproduce at least some offspring of mixed ancestry.● inbreeding depression: Reduction, in inbred individuals, of the mean value of a character(usually one correlated with fitness) relative to offspring of unrelated individuals.● inbreeding load: The decline in a population’s mean fitness that results from the fixation ofdeleterious mutations by drift. See also inbreeding depression.● inversions: A 180° reversal of the orientation of a part of a chromosome, relative to somestandard chromosome.● isolating mechanisms: A genetically determined difference between populations thatrestricts or prevents gene flow between them. The term does not include spatial segregationby extrinsic geographic or topographic barriers.● kin selection: A form of selection whereby alleles differ in their rate of propagation byinfluencing the impact of their bearers on the reproductive success of individuals (kin) whocarry the same alleles by common descent.● levels of selection: The several kinds of reproducing biological entities (e.g., genes,organisms, species) that can vary in fitness, resulting in potential selection among them.● linkage disequilibrium: The association of two alleles at two or more loci more frequently(or less frequently) than predicted by their individual frequencies.● local adaptation: Of an allele, trait, or population, the state of being differentially adapted toconditions that prevail in a spatially restricted area.● meiotic drive: A form of segregation distortion that occurs during meiosis and causes anallele to have greater than 50% probability of being transmitted to a gamete.● MK test: A test for selection at a locus by comparing DNA sequence variation within specieswith the variation among species.● parapatric: Of two species or populations, having contiguous but non-overlappinggeographic distributions.● parapatric speciation:● parent-offspring conflict: A condition in which a character state that enhances fitness ofoffspring reduces the fitness of a parent (or vice versa).● phylogenetic species concept : Species conceived as groups of

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